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Transcript of Writing Development
in age as well as their Cognitive Development, they emerge into the concrete operation level and begin to focus on organizing their work so that others can understand what the author is trying to explain. The writing tends to have fuller details, and ideas that seem more logical and show sequencing. The Recurring Principle The Directionality Principle The Generating Principle In the beginning, when a child uses this principle, it holds no significant meaning. It is generally represented by lines repeated over and over or scribbles like loops or jagged edges. As the child's writing develops, this principle is still used, but when they are repeating letters or words as they write. This principle is all about how students learns which way text is read and understood. At first, children don't realize that every piece of writing they've encountered starts at a certain point and always heads in the same direction, but as that child gets older, he/she begins to notice that all writing starts on the upper left hand corner and is written in a line from left to right and back to the left again to start the next line. Developed in the writing attempts during preschool and primary grades, this principle is the closest graphic feature to actual writing. This is where the child starts to mimic the look of words and sentences by stringing together letters in several different arrangements and creating spaces in between each set of letters to make a new "word." This principle is something that develops in reading, but can present itself in writing as a child is learning letters and making words. The flexibility principle is when a child doesn't yet realize that just because letters look similar does not mean they're the same. For example, "p" and "b" are just mirror images of each other, but students need to learn that they represent two different letters and therefore make different sounds and spell different words. The Flexibility Principle Nonprint Features Drawing is an important print substitution. Before children learn how to write, they will use drawings, signs, and other nonprint graphics to express themselves or tell a story. As a student develops writing skills, while they're still in the preliterate stage, the child will start to realize that written language is made up of a bunch of symbols that represent words, so sometimes, that student will come up with their very own representations of words that only they will understand. What Are Writing Conventions for English and How Do I Teach Them? Writing conventions are the rules writers follow to help readers understand what they're writing such as grammar, parts of speech, sentences, usage, and punctuation and capitalization. Grammar Parts of Speech Sentences Usage Punctuation and Capitalization What is it? How do I teach it? What is it? What is it? What is it? What is it? How do I teach it? How do I teach it? How do I teach it? How do I teach it? A set of rules governing what is valid or allowable in a language or text and controls the order in which words come in a sentence. The teacher can incorporate grammar workshops in the lesson which seem to work rather well because the students are learning it using their own writing. These can take place before the students begin a writing assignment and can be used to introduce correct usage and punctuation guidelines for student writing. All the different types of words and the purposes they serve when making a sentence. Noun Pronoun Verb Adverb Adjective Preposition Conjunctions Interjection Articles Person, place, or thing Stand in for Nouns Tells what a person, place or thing does Describes verbs, adverbs, and adjectives Describes nouns or pronouns Shows words in relation to others Connects words or groups of words Shows emotion or strong feelings Like adjectives that tell something about a noun The teacher can use grammar workshops to focus on finding overused or weak words used in writing. As students get older, the teacher can have them identify these words and come up with stronger words that hold the same meaning but make the sentence more interesting. A set of words that is complete in itself, typically containing a subject and predicate, conveying a statement, question, exclamation, or command. The teacher may use sentence-composing strategies to help the students develop concise sentences that very in length and complexity. Sentence-Imitating Strategy Sentence-Combination Strategy Sentence-Expanding Strategy Sentence-Unscrambling Strategy Take a look at a favorite children's book and pick out a sentence that illustrates a specific sentence structure. Then, have the students imitate that same structure by using synonyms to make another sentence that is similar to the example. Write three simple sentences on the board that have the potential to morph into one complete sentence. Then, have the students combine the sentences. This practice promotes complex sentence writing from the class. Find a sentence that has an opening phrase and read it to the class. Then take away the ending statement and have the students fill in the ending on their own. This helps them understand the usefulness of opening phrases and how to use them in their own writing. This technique focuses on helping students find the best order for the words in a sentence. First, find a sentence that has multiple parts to it and break it up into a list of phrases. Then scramble the phrases so that the students will have to come up with the same or similar sentence that conveys the same meaning. Run-On Sentences Activity: Sentence Fragments Activity: Take a run on sentence and break it up into small phrases. Then, have the students put the phrases in order that make the most sense in multiple sentences. First, take a couple of sentence fragments where about half of them are opening phrases. Then, have the students put the sentences together by adding commas or other words to connect the sentences. The way in which a word or phrase is normally and correctly used. Many books have great examples of proper word usage, so first, the teacher must find a sentence that he/she feels is appropriate for the grade level of the class. Then the teacher will read the book and have the students identify word usage features in the
sentence. Then the students will write their own sentence using the model. Finally, the students
will turn to their own work to decide
whether their work needs this
usage feature. Punctuation is all the different symbols that give the reader a clue to where sentences end or separations between subordinate and main clauses. Capitalization is a form of punctuation that identifies the beginning of a sentence as well as proper names, places, and things. The teacher will take a paragraph from a favorite book and completely strip it of all punctuation and capitalization. When the class reads this passage, it will be hard to understand and the students will likely have to go back and reread to understand what the paragraph is saying. Then, have the students insert their own punctuation and read the paragraph again. The students will likely have an array of different ways to punctuate the passage because
they don't know exactly how the author is meaning
the statement, but their goal is to have the
passage make more sense and be easier
to read for the audience. Expressive Writing Transactional Writing Poetic Writing is writing that is personal, informal, or conversational in tone. For younger writers, this type of writing may be hard to follow because it lacks sufficient context for understanding the author. Like a conversation, this writing tends to jump around from one topic to another. is writing that includes some form of explanation, description, or persuasion. This type of writing is more objective than expressive writing. Students start to use this around the time that they realize that the purpose of ones writing dictates how it is developed. is writhing that is written more for enjoyment. Forms of poetic writing include poetry, plays, stories, novels, scripts, or any other literary form that can stand on its own. As young writers develop control over their writing, it becomes noticeable in the way they form sentences. Eventually, the student's sentence structure becomes more and more complex and it becomes evident that they are maturing in their writing. Signs of growth include. Sentences are shorter with one or two main clauses. Sentences include subordinate clauses with main clauses. An increase occurs in the use of subordinate clauses with a main clause. A gradual increase occurs in the use of specific kinds of clauses, including noun, adverbial, and others. Noun clauses appear as the result of the writing topic. The increase in adverbial clauses peaks at the fourth grade. Adjectival clauses continue to increase through the grades. The increase in adjectival clauses coincides with an increase in descriptive writing. Main clauses are combined into one. Greater use of prepositional phrases is seen. What Are The Characteristics of Genres of Writing? Journal Writing Personal Journals Learning Journals What Are They? How Do I Teach Them? This type of journal gives the students a safe place to reflect and write about their lives, and respond to things that are going on around them. This type of journal has
the student reflect on
what they are learning about in school. They can be anything from Learning Logs to Dialogue Journals. The student should have some sort of permanent writing space like a notebook
so the students can look back on what they wrote previously. The teacher should
decide on a specific time of day when the students do journal writing so it becomes
part of a routine. The teacher should generally come up with a topic for the students to write on, but a good way to help them into journal writing is by modeling it for them. In all forms of journal writing, the teacher should respond the student entries in a timely manner. In this section, the characteristics of eight different genres will be identified. Fables Story Elements Story Elements Folk Tales Story Elements Historical Stories Legends Story Elements Myths Story Elements Story Elements Modern Fantasy Realistic Stories Story Elements Story Elements Science Fiction Stories Short tales whose characters are usually animals, although humans can be in them. The story illustrates moral based on the action of the characters. Tales about heroes and heroines
who overcome evil and adversity. There
are often repeated actions or responses
in fold tales as well as magic or
supernatural action. Fold tales can be cumulative tales, talking animal tales, realistic tales, or pourquoi tales and come from every country in the world. Realistic stories that have historical settings so that readers can understand the past. The plot or story line uses an accurate historic setting to do this. Stories that have humans perform extraordinary acts that form the basis of the legend, or story passed down by word of mouth. A traditional story that explains some natural occurrence or natural phenomenon. characters can include animals, gods and goddesses, and fanciful creatures like dragons and unicorns. Modern-day fantasy stories that resemble traditional folk tales or fanciful stories in which whole new worlds and characters are created. These can include magical transformations of time and characters that enable characters to do extraordinary or impossible tasks. Stories set in contemporary times that realistic characters faced with real life challenges and conflicts. These include the trials of growing, losing family or friends, coping with disabilities, ethnic or racial conflict, and the impact of divorce or loss of jobs. Stories that depict the world as it might be a different time or era in the future. These stories also include journeys back in time or into the future through some scientific phenomenon or invention. The rold of science is prevalent in many of these science fiction stories. This is the stage where the student begins to think about what they are going to write. Two important activities associated with this stage are planning and organizing. Some of the ways to do this with your class is by prompting them with questions to think about what they're writing. The students can also use graphic organizers and journals to think their ideas through. When drafting, students write out what they've planned for the first time. These drafts will often not come close to their final product, but helps the student see what needs to be fixed before they move on. In this stage the teacher should let the students start on their own, but circulate and prompt them with questions if the student needs help. When in the drafting process, the student only needs to know how to spell a word well enough to recognize it again so they don't continue to stop while writing. This stage is the writing process is when one focuses on the quality and organization of ideas in the writing, not on errors like punctuation and spelling. One important thing to note is that not all pieces of writing need to be revised. They can be reviewed, discussed, and evaluated, but revising is when things actually need to be fixed. Two revising techniques are Authors Conferences and Writing Groups where the student can get sufficient feedback from their teacher and peers. This step takes care of punctuation, capitalization, correctness, and overall appearance. At the heart of Editing is proofreading. During this stage, the author is looking for errors in grammar, like the types of grammar mistakes talked about earlier. To assist students, the teacher could use editing charts as checklists to make sure they don't pass over errors. This is the final stage of the Writing Process and means that the students have finished working on the writing. About this time, the students will start to appreciate all the hard work they did previously because their work turns into something they can be proud of. A great way to publish the students' work and share it with others. is by having them read their finished product out loud to the class.