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ideologies and the development of western welfare states
Transcript of ideologies and the development of western welfare states
Sophia seung-yoon lee
(Ewha womans Univerisity
-why are we interested in past ideas?
-where do ideas come from?
-what is the relationship between ideas and welfare state development?
-what is happening to current welfare states and what will happen next?
Industrialization (late 1800-early 1900)
Wartime , New deal and Historic compromise (1918-1940s)
The Golden age (1950s-early 1970s)
Crisis and retrenchment? (1980s-)
(Traditional) Social democracy
classical political economy
Formed by a number of socialist intellectuals
Defects of capitalism as wate and ineffciency rather than inequality and exploitation
Gradualist : a steady progress towards socialism rather suddent revolutionary shift
:past = dead ?
aximization of welfare could best be achieved by allowing individuals, within an overall legal contract, to pursue their own economic interests without external restraint: the sum of individual welfares
roper state power : i) the defense of the realm against external assault; ii) the guarantee of the rule of law; and iii) the maintenance of 'certain public works and certain public institutions' which the market could not competently provide.
f welfare were to be granted, independent of the willingness to work, there would remain no incentive for the worker to sell his or her labour power
the development of capitalism :
feudal society to industrial economy
apitalism is an economic system based on the production and exchange of privately owned commodities within an unconstrained market
apitalism as a necessarily exploitative and class-based system,
he competitive search for profit and responses to the long-term tendency for the rate of profit to fall lead to the intensification of exploitation and the heightening of class conflict -> prone to periodic crises
apitalism in its historically 'declining' phase comes to be ever less efficient and less equitable
Traditional social democracy:
The situation of the urban-industrial working class has improved not worsened.
Capitalism has proved capable of reform
The expansion of the interventionist state in creating an expanding public employment sector, increasingly unseats the logic of the market.
Further social progress is best effected, through the continued promotion of (capitalist) economic growth
The welfare state is a particular form of the developed capitalist state. It functions to secure the long-term circumstances for the continued accumulation of capital
Hayek: sovereignty of parliament should be limited in order to prevent it from violating the rights of individuals
State social service is ' the road to serfdom' because extensive state intervention tool away people's liberty
Friedman: all services should be provided by the market, since then people can express theor preferences freely in terms of what they are willing to pay for.
Keynesianism (New liberalism)
State should intervene to create the conditions where liberal aspirations for the full development of every individuals could be met.
State economic management to solve the social and economic problems of unemployment
The solution' to the social democratic dilemma - Keynesian economic policy in association with the promotion of an expanded welfare state - the so-called Keynesian Welfare State
Hostile to welfare state intervention because:
1) its administrative and bureaucratic methods of allocation are inferior to those of the market;
2) it is morally objectionable (for both the sponsors and the recipients of state welfare);
3) it denies the consumers of welfare services any real choice;
4) despite the enormous resources devoted to it, it has failed either to eliminate poverty or to eradicate unjust inequalities of opportunity
Origins of the Welfare State
1. First introduction of social insurance
2. The extension of citizenship
3. Growth of social expenditure
welfare state development
Pierson, C (2006) Beyond the Welfare States
Castles, F. et al. (eds) (2010) The Oxford Handbook of The Welfare State. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Pierson, C and Castles, F.G. (eds.) (2006) The Welfare State Reader, 2nd edition. Cambridge: Polity Press.
The Student’s Companion to Social Policy (Third Edition), Edited by Pete Alcock, Margaret May and Karen Rowlingson. Blackwell Publishing
Otto von Bismarck
Unified most of the German states (whilst excluding some, most notably Austria) into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership. This created a balance of power that preserved peace in Europe from 1871 until 1914.
Feminist welfare ideology has raised the question of how the welfare state reinforces gender division
Full citizenship for women; socialization of domestic labour; services designed to meet needs of women
[French Constituent assembly (1789-91)]
the Left the Right
-Kings power of veto
- Political rights