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Factors That Affect Reading Acquisition and Performance

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by

Queena Marticio

on 9 September 2013

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Transcript of Factors That Affect Reading Acquisition and Performance

Visual
Adequacy
Factors That Affect Reading
Acquisition and Performance

Within the Reader
Physiological Development
and Reading

The Brain
and Reading
Auditory Adequacy
Physical Health and Reading
Dyslexia
Perceptual Factors and
Reading
Neurological Deviations and Brain Functioning (Harris, 1980)
Brain injury at birth
Injury to the brain tissue during childhood (e.g. encephalitis)
Congenital and acquired brain defects
Irregular pattern of brain maturation
Inadequate brain functioning
Central Processing Dysfunction
Behaviors
Reads considerably below potential
Has poor, visual-motor coordination
Reverses letters and order of letters in words,
or changes the order of sounds in a word when reading
Poor in organizing work
Often appears clumsy and awkward
Hyperactive
Easily distracted; short attention span
Difficulty in shifting from one activity to another;
preservation
Impulsive
Slow in finishing work
Often shows a lag in maturation
References:
A framework for understanding dyslexia [ PDF document]. Retrieved from Text Help: Literacy, Accessibility & Dyslexia Software: http://www.texthelp.com/UK

Hammond, J., & Hercules, F. Understanding dyslexia: An introduction for dyslexic students in higher education [ PDF document] . Retrieved from Association of Dyslexia Specialists in Higher Education: http://adshe.org.uk

Hermosa, N. N. (2002). The psychology of reading. Quezon City: UP Open University.

Disclaimer:
All images are copyrighted by their respective owners unless otherwise stated.
Left-dominance
Right-dominance
Crossed-dominance
Lack of dominance
Cerebral Dominance and Laterality
Intal, Javier, Marticio, Odoño, Ongkingco
Visual Discrimination
- the ability to distinguish between written symbols
No direct relationship may be said to exist between reading disability and physical health.
Skills Needed
in Reading
Auditory and visual perceptual skills
Language and concept development
Reading
requires
the sense of sight.
Visual Acuity
You do not need to have
a 20/20 vision to read well.
What a Reader Must Do Visually in Order to Read Efficiently (Dechant, 1964)
Coordinate the eyes
Move the eyes along a line of print
Make proper return sweeps
See clearly and distinctly both near and far
Change focus
Fuse the impressions of each eye into a single image
Have a visual memory for what was seen
Sustain visual concentration
Have good hand-eye coordination
Accurately perceive size and distance relationships
How
the Eye
Works
Visual Defects
Refractive errors: myopia & hyperopia
Astigmatism
Binocular difficulties
Strabismus
Aniseikonia
Symptoms of Visual Difficulty (Rubin, 1982)
Complains of constant headaches
Has red or watery eyes or eyes with red rims, swollen lids and frequent sties
Squints while reading
Asks to sit loser to the chalkboard and cannot seem to sit still while doing close work
Holds the book very close to his/her face while reading
Skips lots of words or sentences while reading
Makes many reversals while reading
Confuses letters
Avoids reading
Mouths the words or lip reads
Confuses similar words
Makes many repetitions while reading
Skips lines while reading
Has difficulty remembering what he/she just read silently
Educational Implications (Eames, 1959, Dechant, 1964)
Control the glare in the classroom.
Do not block the light source.
Arrange pupils in the classroom such that they are comfortable with the lighting especially when they read
Use large-sized materials.
Write on the blackboard with large letters above children's eye level.
Provide ample rest periods.
Learn to use various screening tests.
Refer children to qualified professionls if necessary.
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GAME!
Objectives
Explain how physical health, vision and hearing, and other physical and neurological factors affect reading performance.
Describe the nature of some reading/language disabilities especially dyslexia.
Draw implications from the physiological factors for education in general and for reading instruction in particular.
Reading is both physical and physiological. Functions such as vision, hearing and thought are possible only through the organs of the body.
If the organ is defective, the function is likely to be impaired.
What is dyslexia?
It comes from the Greek 'dys-,' meaning difficulty with, and ‘-lexia,’ meaning words or language.
Dyslexia affects information processing (receiving, holding, retrieving and structuring information) and the speed of processing information. It therefore has an impact on skills such as reading, writing, using symbols and carrying out calculations.
Dyslexia describes a group of different but related factors that affect an individual throughout his/her life. It is not just about speaking and reading difficulties; it is not about lack of intelligence.

People With Dyslexia
"Words move around the page.They’re always moving, especially numbers. Numbers are terrible."

"I find that sometimes, if I’m not really concentrating on what I’m saying, when I’m speaking, I manage to get the order in what I’m saying jumbled up.
I sound like Yoda!"

"You have got the ideas exactly like a painter, you know exactly what colours you want to use… but if you come to put it on paper,
it is very different, it is a nightmare."

"I forget things a lot. Short-term forgetfulness normally. Silly things like forgetting my bus pass, travel card… getting on a train and getting off the other end and I've got no pass with me, so I have to go back."

The impact of dyslexia on each individual is different.
The learner appears to be underachieving.
How should you teach
a learner who has dyslexia?
(RA No. 7277)

Be explicit--dyslexic learners are often very literal.
Explain the reason for suggesting any approach and encourage learners to evaluate whether or not it works for them--they may not yet know how they learn best.
Create an environment where making mistakes is seen as part of the learning process.
Teach to the level of difficulty the learner has, but interact with the learner at their level of intelligence.

Listen carefully to what dyslexic learners tell you about their learning. How they describe the processes of reading and writing will tell you a lot about their different approaches.
Explore their typical difficulties (many of which will be common with other learners) and what has and has not worked in the past.
Promote self confidence by giving learners the experience of success and positive feedback.
Use approaches that encourage self-directed and independent learning so that learners feel in control of their learning.

Consider the learner’s personality, motivation, cognitive strengths and successful learning experience as well as their particular dyslexic characteristics.
Make sure you are using a range of multisensory methods.
What causes dyslexia?
Differences in the anatomy, organization and functioning of the dyslexic brain as compared to the non-dyslexic brain
Dyslexic people tend to be "right brain thinkers"
Dyslexia may be hereditary
The dyslexic person has a pattern of cognitive abilities that shows areas of strengths and weaknesses
How can you help
with reading?
Guide learners to the most important sections that need to be read.
Avoid the use of text-dense material where possible; space helps understanding for all learners.
Include graphics such as pictures, diagrams and cartoons in handouts to provide reference points and visual clues.
Print handouts on paper of the color your dyslexic learners prefer.
Be aware that some fonts are more difficult to read than others.
Enlarge text where appropriate--never reduce the size of print.
Identify, explain and discuss new vocabulary when it arises. Give word lists with clear definitions.
Encourage learners to note specialist vocabulary and its meaning in a personal dictionary.
2 Types
of Hearing Loss
Conductive Loss
Conductive process (middle ear)
Own voice > others
Speaks softly
Educational Implications
Develop auditory discrimination skills (gross discrimination and simple speech patterns)
3 Strategies to Compensate for One's Disability
Recoding into articulation
Recoding into signs
Fingerspelling
Auditory acuity
Auditory comprehension
Auditory discrimination
Nerve Loss
Auditory nerve
Own voice < others
Speaks loudly
Symptoms
Inattentiveness
Loud volumes
Blank expression
No direct relationship may be said to exist between reading disability and physical health. However, it is obvious that A CHILD WHO IS ILL IS NOT ABLE TO DO WELL IN SCHOOL. Physical inadequacies may result in lowered vitality, depletion of energy, slower physical development and therefore, mental retardation.
Studies have shown that children who are hungry and malnourished have difficulty learning because they CANNOT CONCENTRATE. Severe malnutrition in infancy may lower children’s IQ scores. The LACK OF PROTEIN in an infant’s diet may adversely affect his or her ability to learn. Other studies have found that food additives may be deterrent for learning for certain children. (Rubin, 1982)
A child who is ill does not usually do well in school because of the illness itself but because the child is out of school so often. He or she misses a lot of learning opportunities.
Learning to read is difficult enough for children. The teacher should therefore scrutinize any condition that adds to the difficulty.
Example
Children who are hyperactive, who have difficulty concentrating, usually fall asleep in class may need a physical check-up.

The teacher should refer the child to the medical personnel and discuss the child’s behavior with his/her parents.
Physiological factors play an important role in the reading performance of children. Without the presence of the necessary organs, reading will not take place. Also, if the physical health of a person is not good, education is very much affected.
Teachers should be sensitive enough to determine the needs as well as the difficulties of the children. They need to help provide the necessary interventions.
The voice is articulated by the lips and tongue. If these physical features have defects, the voice cannot function well. Hence, a person cannot articulate sound the way it should.
Example: A person with cleft lip and palate may not be able in or may have a hard time producing nasal sounds, fricatives, labials, sibilants and other types of sounds in pronouncing letters.
There are sounds that are produced with a corresponding place of articulation. Sounds produced depend on the position of the lips, teeth, tongue and palate.
It is a challenge for teachers to teach the right articulation to students who have problems in their vocal apparatuses.
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