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Ancient India and China

SSWH2-a
by

Kristen Bell

on 22 August 2013

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Transcript of Ancient India and China

Ancient Chinese Beginnings

Oracle Bone

Ancient Trade Routes


I want you to compare and contrast ancient India and China. Write down as much as you know.
Outline form

You will turn this in for a grade!

Write something…


SSWH2 The student will identify the major achievements of Chinese and Indian societies from 1100 BCE to 500 CE.
a. Describe the development of Indian civilization; include the rise and fall of the Maurya Empire, the “Golden Age” under Gupta, and the emperor Ashoka.


Ancient India and China

“Warring States Period” (475 B.C. – 221 B.C.)

The Warring States Period is considered the Golden Age of Chinese Philosophy
Confucianism was developed during this time
Taoism was developed during this time
Legalism was developed during this time

Feudal system of government
Land given to vassals
Cities divided into two parts:
One for Zhou citizens
One for Shang persons


Zhou China (1100 B.C. – 250 B.C.)

Shang capital was at Zhengzhou
It had walls 30 feet high, 65 feet wide and over 4 miles long!

Shang China (1700 B.C. – 1100 B.C.)

Achievements:
Folktales & Drama:
Panchantantra – folktales to teach moral lessons through stories of animals
Kalidasa, famous playwright – wrote Shakuntala – about the love between a king and forest maiden
Mathematics:
Developed principles leading to algebra
Invented concepts of infinity and zero
Devised symbols for 1-9 (“Arabic Numerals”)
Astronomy:
Realized earth is round
Trade:
Land and sea trade
Arabia – gems, spices, cotton, teak and ebony
China – silk
Rome – gold

Gupta Empire (A.D. 310 – A.D. 415)

After the adoption of Buddhism, Ashoka:
Never again went to war
Carved his laws on rocks and placed them throughout the kingdom
Established free hospitals and veterinary clinics
Built roads with rest areas for travelers

Mauryan Empire
(321 B.C. - 184 B.C.)

Ashoka, grandson of Chandragupta, ruled from 274 B.C. to 232 B.C.
Considered the greatest ruler in the history of India
He built an empire that covered 2/3 of India

Mauryan Empire
(321 B.C. - 184 B.C.)

Spoke the Sanskrit language – eventually created a written language (1000 B.C.E.)
Wrote the Vedas
Means “Books of Knowledge”
Formed the basis of the Aryan religion
4 Vedas:
Rig Veda
Sama Veda
Yajur Veda
Atharva Veda

Aryan India

Patriarchal
Men could not marry until they completed 12 years of school
Women married off very young
Dowry
Children were important
Expected to take care of their parents
Suttee
Women throwing herself of the funeral pyres

Aryan Family Life

The Aryans originated from the area north of the Black and Caspian Seas
They are not an ethnic group, but part of a larger group historians call the Indo-Europeans
Shared similar languages and spread to India and Europe
The Aryans entered India through the Khyber Pass


Aryan Civilization

Theocratic
Palace and holy temple combined
Based on farming
Wheat, barley, peas
Traded extensively
Persian gulf

Harappan Government and Economics

Developed from Hanfeizi
Humans are evil by nature and need a strict law
Used to support strict laws and harsh punishments


Legalism

Based on teachings of Laozi
Called Tao Te Ching
Emphasizes harmony of individual with nature
The “tao” – universal force that guides all things


Daoism

Founded by Kongfuzi (551-479 B.C.)
(anglicized as Confucius)
Taught that social harmony and good government would return to China if people lived ethically
Writings were collected and called the Analects

Confucianism

The last portion of the Zhou dynasty is called the Warring States Period
This is because many large states in China were fighting to control the whole empire


“Warring States Period” (475 B.C. – 221 B.C.)

Nomadic tribe that defeated the Shang dynasty
Established the idea of the “Mandate of Heaven” to validate their rule
Mandate of Heaven: Authority granted by heaven to deserving rulers

Zhou China (1100 B.C. – 250 B.C.)

The Shang religion had two main components:
Worship of Shang Ti
Supreme god who ruled over lesser gods and the forces of the earth (rain, wind, sun)
Ancestor Worship
One act of worship was human sacrifice
When a king died, often hundreds of servants would be sacrificed with him
For less important events, like the opening of a temple, smaller numbers would be sacrificed

Shang Religion

Sometimes called dragon bones
Used to predict the future
Process:
A question was written on the bone.
The bone was fired and a T shaped crack appeared
The crack was interpreted
The interpretation was then written on the bone.
After the predicted event occurred, the date of the occurrence was also written on the bone.

Oracle Bones

Shang China (1700 B.C. – 1100 B.C.)

I
Early societies in China developed along the Yangtze and Huang He (Yellow River)
It is the 3rd longest river in the world
People lived here for 27,000 years

Ancient China

Built by Chandragupta I
no relation to Chandragupta Maurya
Called the “Golden Age” of India
Built many Hindu temples
Reached height under Chandragupta II (C.E. 375 – 415)

Gupta Empire
(C.E. 310 – C.E. 415)

H
In 262 B.C., after defeating the kingdom of Kalinga, Ashoka became convinced of non-violence and adopted Buddhism

Mauryan Empire
(321 B.C. - 184 B.C.)

Mauryan Empire (321B.C. - 184 B.C.)

G
Alexander the Great came but soon left
His soldiers refused to fight
Unified by Chandragupta Maurya
Overthrew the king of Magaha
Skilled administrator
Developed efficient postal system

These addressed the concepts of good and evil and taught proper behavior
Together with Vedas, form basis of early Indian religion
Mahabharata
100,000 verses
One portion, Bhagavad Gita (“Song of the Lord”) is most famous)
Ramayana
Tale of Rama, the ideal king, and his queen Sita

India’s Two Epics

Groups outside the Varnas – Not even considered human

Varnas

Aryan Social Structure

F
Aryan Social Structure

Called “Caste System”
System of 4 varnas (social classes)
Each varna had it’s own duties (called dharma)
Eventually, varnas were subdivided into smaller jati
Outside the system of varnas was a group called “Pariahs” – untouchables or outcasts


Nomadic at first, settled down into agriculture in Indus Valley
Iron plows allowed them to clear jungles
Each tribe led by a rajah (chief) – they controlled a small state
Often at war
Importance of cattle
Served as basis of diet, eventually used as money

Aryan Civilization

Beginning in 1500 B.C.E., a group of peoples called Aryans invaded the Indus River valley


Aryan Civilization

C
Two seasonal winds called monsoons affect the climate
Winter or Northeast (November to March)
Brings dry air from mountains
Summer or Southwest (June to September)
Brings wet air from the ocean

Early India & Geography

The most well-known mountain pass is the Khyber Pass.

Invaders can only enter the Indian subcontinent over water or through a small number of mountain passes

D
Excavations of Mohenjo-Daro

The most important advancement of the Harappan people was the development of planned cities
Cities were laid out in a grid pattern
Divided into large walled neighborhoods
Varied sized houses up to 3 stories high
Public wells and drainage and sewers
Well organized government

Harappan Civilization

We have named the first major civilization of India the Harappan civilization, after one of it’s major cities
The Harappan civilization reached its height about 2500 B.C.E.
35,000-40,000 people

Harappan Civilization

B
Plains stretch south from the mountains
There are three major rivers on these plains
Indus
Ganges
Brahmaputra

Early India & Geography

Early India & Geography

Early Indian civilizations developed in the Indus River valley

India is separated from the rest of Asia by two major mountain ranges
Himalayas
Hindu Kush

A
Example:
I. Ancient India and China are in Asia
A. India is west of China
1. Closer to the Middle East
B. China is east of India
E
The Shang was the second Chinese dynasty
Founded by Xia, little is known about this society
Agrarian
Did not use plows
Only used wooden and stone tools
First Chinese dynasty with written language
Used oracle bones

J
The will to win, the desire to succeed, the urge to reach your full potential... these are the keys that will unlock the door to personal excellence.
Confucius
Life is a series of natural and spontaneous changes. Don't resist them - that only creates sorrow. Let reality be reality. Let things flow naturally forward in whatever way they like.
Lao Tzu
K
Humaneness may make one shed tears and be reluctant apply penalties, but law makes it clear that such penalties must be applied
You will be creating an outline for an essay.
We are not going to be actually writing the essay, but we are going to practice the first steps!

Follow the directions on your sheets
This is INDIVIDUAL!

Turn it in on the front table when you are finished!

DBQ Outline

Qin China (221 B.C. – 206 B.C.)

Qin Shihuangdi died in 210 B.C. and was succeeded by his son
Son was weak leader
Hatred for Qin boiled over into rebellion in 206 B.C.

End of Qin China

Connected walls built along the northern border of China to form the Great Wall
It stretched 4,000 miles



Qin China (221 B.C. – 206 B.C.)

Standardized the Chinese language
Standardized system of measurements and currency
Set up a unified law code for China
We get the modern day name for China from the Qin

Achievements of the Qin

213 B.C. - Afraid of rebellion from the literate, Qin Shihuangdi burned thousands of books relating to philosophy and government
Peasants hated Qin Shihuangdi for his forced-labor gangs which constructed immense public works

Qin China (221 B.C. – 206 B.C.)

Legalist form of government
Qin Shihuangdi destroyed the power of the nobles
All nobility were removed from their positions and sent to live in the capital
This prevented local leaders from becoming strong enough to challenge the Emperor


Qin China (221 B.C. – 206 B.C.)

China was unified by Qin Shihuangdi
Name means “First Emperor”
Utilized cavalry to conquer their enemies
Divided his empire into 36 military districts
Each had a civil governor, a military commander, and an imperial inspector
Each was subdivided into counties

Qin China (221 B.C. – 206 B.C.)

L
Ancient India
Harappan Civilization
What they are know for:

Government and Economics:
Aryan Civilization
How they entered India:

Social Structure:

Culture and Language:
Mauryan Empire
What they developed:

Who ruled and what did he do?

Religion and what came of it:
Gupta Empire
Achievements:
Ancient China
Shang Dynasty
Religion:
Zhou Dynasty
Mandate of Heaven:
Feudal System:
Warring States Period:
Philosophies:
Confucianism:
Daoism:
Legalism:
Qin Dynasty
Organization:

Government:

Achievements:
Full transcript