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AP Biology Concept Map

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by

Kaylee Miranda

on 18 December 2014

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Transcript of AP Biology Concept Map

Big Idea
Chapters 1-20

By: Kaylee Miranda & Madison Romero

The Chemistry of Life
The Cell
Genetics
Water
Organic molecules and organisms
Free energy changes
Enzymes
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Membrane
Cellular Respiration
Photosynthesis
Mitosis
Meiosis
Inheritance patterns
Gene regulation
Mutation
Water
Organic molecules in organisms
Free Energy Changes
Enzymes
Water is polar which results in hydrogen bonding
acidic and basic conditions
Water has the qualities of
Cohesion
Moderation of temperature
high specific heat
evaporative cooling
Insulation
floating ice
Solvent of life
aqueous solutions
hydrophillic (water loving)
hydrophobic (water fearing)
4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.5
Carbon
Hydrocarbons (carbon and hydrogen)
Isomers
same number of atoms, different structures
geometric isomers (differ in spatial arrangments
structeral isomers ( differ in covalent partners)
Enantiomers (mirror images)
Macromolecules (polymers)
Carbohydrates
glycolipid
glycoprotein
Lipids
fats
phosphlipid (bilayer)
steriods
Proteins
integral proteins and transmembrane proteins
transport proteins
aquaporins
glycoproteins
enzymes
Metabolic pathways
catabolic pathways (breakdown)
anabolic pathways (consume energy)
Energy
kinetic energy (motion)
thermal energy
potential energy (secret energy)
chemical energy
The Laws of Energy Transformation
Laws of thermodynamics
1st: energy cannot be created or destroyed
2nd: every energy trabsfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe
Free energy
exergonic (releases)
endergonic (absorbs)
equilibrium (when energy is coming in and going out at the same rate)
Catalyst
speeds up a reaction
Enzymes speed up a reaction by lowering the activation energy barrier
Inhibitors
reduce enzyme function
Enzymes can be:
grouped into complexes
incorperated into membranes
inside organelles
Prokarotic and Eukaryotic Cells
Membranes
Cellular Respiration
Photosynthesis
Eukaryotic
Animal cells
Organelles
mitochondria
rough and smooth ER
nucleus (nuclear pores, nuclear envelope, nucleolus)
plasma membrane
chromatin
ribosomes
cilia
glogi apparatus
microtubles/microfilaments
centrioles
peroxisome
Plant Cell
organelles
chloroplast
vacuole
mitochondria
plasma mebrane
peroxisome
cell wall
golgi apparatus
cytoplasm
rough and smooth ER
nucleus (nuclear pores, nucler envelope, nucleolus)
ribosomes
cytoskeleton
plasmodesmata
Prokaryotic cell
Organelles
cell mebrane
cytoplasm
ribosome
cell wall
capsule
Plasma membrane
which bounds the cell
selective barrier that allows sufficient passage for certain things
Nuclear envelope
which bounds the nucleus
Phospholipid bilayer
are what membranes are made of
Membranes make up a cell
Protein can be embedded in the membrane
proteins can move laterally within the membrane
Membrane proteins:
transport proteins
enzymatic activity
signal transduction
cell-cell recognition
intercellular joining
attachment to the cytoskeleton

1. Starts with glucose
breaks down during glycolisis which occurs in the cytoplasm
produces 2 ATP and 2 pyruvate
2. Kreb's Cycle
breaks down pyruvate into carbon dioxide
produces 6 NADH, 2 ATP, and 2 FADH
3. Electron transport chain
uses 6 NADH, 2 ATP, adn 2 FADH
to produce 36 ATP

1. Chlorophyll absorbs sunlight
2. Light dependent reactions
light energy is transfered to photosystem I or II
excited electrons are transferred to electron acceptors, leaving the reaction center in an oxidized state
produces ATP and NADPH
3. Light independent reactions
uses ATP a NADPH to produce carbohydrates (glucose)
Mitosis
Meiosis
Inheritance patterns
Gene Regulation
Mutation
Interphase: leads up to mitosis
Prophase chromatin becomes more tightly coiled
Metaphase: meet at the equator of the chromosomes
Anaphase: seperation of the chromosomes
Telophase: cell splits by cytokinesis
1st part
Prophase 1 cell conatins 4 chromosomes and the nuclear membrane breaks down, spindles form, and chromosomes begin to align
Metaphase 1 homologous chromosomes line up in pairs along the spindles, during whic crossing over or genetic recombination occurs
Anaphase 1 maternal and paternal chromosomes pulled to opposite sides
Telophase 1 chromosomes arrive at separate sides and nuclear membrane forms afterward 2 new cells form through cytokinesis
2nd Part
Prophase 2 in which spindles form and nuclear membrane disapears; the cell contains 2 chromasomes and 2 chromatids
Metaphase 2 in which spindle fibers attach to centromeres and chromasomes line up
Anaphase 2 in which nucleus reforms and sister chromatids separate
Telophase 2 in which cells divide in two, and forms 4 new cells each with 2 chromasomes
Single Gene
autosomal
gene responsible for phenotype is located on the non sex-determining chromosomes
x-linked
gene that encodes for the trait is located on the X chromosome
dominant
conditions that are manifest in heterozygotes
recessive
conditions are only manifest in individuals who have two copies of the mutant allele

any step of a gene can be regulated
gene regulation is the process of turning genes off and on.
gene regulations endures that the approiete genes are expressed at proper times
they can also help an organism respond to it's environment
gene regulation is accomplished by using chemically modifying genes and using regulatory genes
Mutation is a permanent change of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal gentic element
Down Syndrome
this mutation happens when the 21st chromosome pair does not split properly and causes mutations
Turners Syndrome
Is when the sex-determining chromosome doesn't split properly, and a gamete with two XXs fuses with a gamete without any Xs, and produces mutations
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