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500 Hour Study Guide

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Terry Kass

on 14 January 2016

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Transcript of 500 Hour Study Guide

Things you can do with your nails!
Chapter 5
Bacteriology
Bacteria (sing. Bacterium):one celled microorganisms that have both plant and anima characteristics. Backteria an exist almost anywhere: on skin, in water, in the air, indecayed matter, on evironmental surfaces, in body secretions, on clothing or under the free edge of nails. Backteria are so small they can only be seen with a microscope.
Study Guide
500 Hour Exam

Chapter 7
Skin Structure, Growth and Nutrition

Dermatology:
Chapter 8
Skin Disorders and Diseases

Pretty much nasty and icky skin stuff.
Congratulations:

Continue to Study for Your Exam
Use all of the material that you have been given to study
Open Your Books
Open Your Minds!!
Reminder:
Non-Pathogenic
Bacteria are
HARMLESS
Pathogenic
Bacteria are
HARMFUL
Bacilli:
short rod-shaped bacteria.

Cocci:
small round bacteria, rarely show active motility.
Spirilla:
spiral shaped bacteria, cause syphilis.
Pathogen:
Organisms that grow, feed, and find shelter on other organisms.
MSDS:
Provides useful disposal guidelines. medical and first aid information.
Multi-use Items:
items include nippers, shears, combs, metal pushers, some nail files, rollers, and permanent wave rods.
Single-use Items:
(AKA disposable) must be discarded after each use.
OSHA:
regulates safety standards and precautions that protect employees in situations when they could be exposed to blood borne pathogens.
Single-use contaminated objects:
discard all single use objects (such as wipes or cottonballs) into a baggy and place a biohazard sticker on the bag, and deposit the bag into a container for contaminated waste.
Tinea:
Medical term for Ringworm
Parasites:
Parasites are organisms that grow, feed, and shelter on or in another organism (or a host)
The medical branch of science that deals with the study of skin- its nature, structure, functions, diseases, and treatment.
Appendages of the skin
The surface of healthy skin is slightly acidic, and its immune responses react quickly to organisms that touch or try to enter it. Appendages of the skin include hair, nails, sudoriferous (sweat) and sebaceous (oil) glands.
Epidermis:
Dermis:
(aka cuticle layer) is the outermost and thinnest layer of the skin.
(aka derma, corium, cutis,true skin, etc.)
the underlaying or inner layer of the skin.
Stratum Lucidum:
the clear, transparent layer under the stratum rneum. consists of small cells through which light can pass.
Stratum Corneum:
layer which we see, and is made of keratin.
Stratum Germinativum:
deepest layer of epidermis.
Stratum Spinosum:
second deepest layer of epidermis.
Stratum Granulosum:
middle layer, full of keratin cells
Arrector Pili Muscles:
small, involuntary muscles int he base of the hair that cause goose bumps.
Comedo:
(AKA blackhead) when sebum hardens and the duct becomes clogged
Hair Follicle:
Tube like depression or pocket int he skin or scalp that contains the hair.
Papule:
a small elevation on the skin that contains no fluid but may develop pus. Papules are frequently seen in acne.
Pustule:
a raised, inflammed, papule with a white or yellow center containing pus in the top of the lesion referred to as the head of the pimple.
ABCDE Cancer Checklist:
According to the American Cancer Society, professionals should use the ABCDE Cancer Checklist to spot signs of change in existing moles.
A:
B:
C:

D:

E:

Asymmetry: the two side of the lesion are not identical
Border: the border is irregular on these lesions
Color: melanomas are usually dark and have more then one color or colors that fade into one another
Diameter: the lesion in a melanoma is usually at least the size of a pencil eraser
Evolving: melanoma as a lesion often change appearance
Chapter 9
Nail Structure and Growth

Mix Ratio:

Too much powder in a mix ratio causes nail enhancements to cure incorrectly and become brittle and discolored.
100 layers of nail cells:
The nail plate may appear to be one solid piece but it is actually constructed of about 100 layers of nail cells. The free edge is part of the nail plate that extends over the tip.
Hyponychium:
it is the slightly thickened layer of skin that lies between the fingertip and free edge of the natural nail plate.
Nail Grooves:
are slits or furrows on the sidewall. The sidewall (aka lateral nail fold) is the fold of skin overlapping the side of the nail.
Average rate of nail growth:
The average rate of nail growth in the normal adult is about 1/10 of an inch (2.5 mm) per month.
Chapter 10
Nail Disorders and Diseases

A normal, healthy nail is firm but flexible. The surface is shiny, smooth, and unspotted with no wavy ridges,pits, or splits. A healthy nail is also whitish and translucent in appearance with the pinkish color of the nail bed showing through.
Beau's lines:
are visible depressions running across the width of the natural nail plate.
Leukonychia spots:
white spots that are white discolorations of the nails, usually caused by minor injury to nail matrix.
Onychorrhexis:
refers to the split or brittle nails that have a series of lengthwise ridges giving a rough appearance to the surface of the nail.
Fungi:
are parasites that may cause infections of the feet and hands.
Bacterial Infection:
a bacterial infection on the nail plate can be identified in the early stages as a yellow/green spot that becomes darker in its advanced stages.
Chapter 11
Properties of the Hair and Scalp

Trichology is the scientific study of hair and its diseases and care. The hair, skin, nails and glands are part of the areas studied.
Hair root:
the part of the hair located below the surface of the epidermis
Hair follicle:
the tube-like depression or pocket in the skin or scalp that contains the hair root.
Hair bulb:
the thickened, club-shaped structure that forms the lower part of the hair root.
Dermal Papilla:
small cone shaped area located at the base of the hair follicle that fits into the bulb.
Arrector pili:

the muscle at the base of the hair follicle; involuntary muscle
Proteins:
long coiled, complete polypeptides made of amino acids
Sebaceous glands:
the oil glands in the skin that are connected to the hair follicle. They secrete a fatty or oily substance called sebum. Sebum lubricates the skin.
Sebum:
Oily substance that lubricates the skin and hair
Hair cuticle:
the outermost layer of the hair. Protects the inner structure of the ahir and ties it against the cortex.
Eumelanin:
Provides brown or black color to the hair
Hydrogen Bond:
a bond that is weak, physical cross-link side bond that is easily broken by water or heat.
Disulfide Bond:
bonds that are not broken by water. They are broken by permanent waves and chemical hair relaxers that alter the shape of the hair.
Wave Pattern:
The wave pattern of hair refers to the shape of the hair strand. The pattern is straight, wavy, curly or extremely curly.
Lanugo Hair:
(aka vellus hair) is short, fine unpigmented and downy hair that appears on the body.
3 Growth Cycles of Hair:
Anagen:
Growth phase of which new hair is produced
Catagen:
a short transition stage that occurs at the end of the anagen phase. It signals the end of the active growth of a hair, and lasts about 2–3 weeks.
Telogen:
lasts about 2 - 4 months. These are the hairs you lose when shampooing or combing your hair.
Postpartum Alopecia:
the temporary hair loss experienced at the end of a pregnancy.
Fragilitas Crinium:
the technical term for brittle hair
Pityraisis:
the technical term for dandruff
Malassezia:
Current research confirms that dandruff is the result of a fungus.
Scabies:
a highly contagious skin disease caused by a parasite called a mite that burrows under the skin.
Hair Density:
measures the number of individual hair strands on 1 inch (2.5 square centimeters) of the scalp.
Hair Elasticity:
the ability of the hair to stretch and return to its original length without breaking.
Chapter 16
Hair Cutting

Reference Points:
points on the head that mark where the surface of the head changes, such as ears, jawline, occipital bone or apex. These help establish design lines.
Partings:
Uniform working areas. Used for control during hair cutting.
Over direction:
used mostly in graduated and layered haircuts, where you want to create a length increase in the design.
Cutting over your fingers:
Hand position is used most often when cutting uniform or increasing layers.
Clipper over Comb Technique:
This technique allows you to cut the hair very close to the scalp and create a flat top or square shape.
Texturizing:
the process of removing excess bulk without shortening the length.
Chapter 17
Hair Styling

Base:
the stationary foundation of the curl which is the area closest the scape the panel of hair on which the roller is placed.
Stem:
Determines the amount of movement or mobility of a pin curl.
Open center curls:
produce even, smooth waves and uniform curls. Close cendered curls produce waves that get smaller towards the end.
Commonly shaped base:
most commonly shaped base is arc base (half moon or c shaped)
Barrel Curls:
The similar effect to that of a roller but does not have the same tension as a roller when it is set. larger diameter pin curls.
Off base:
for the least amount of volume, the roller sits completely off the base.
Indentation:
the point where curls of the oppposite directions meet forming a recessed area.
Off Base Curls:
are placed completely off the their base and offer a curl option with only slightly lift or volume.
Chapter 22
Hair Removal

Two major categories of hair removal:
Permanent and Temporary
Retin - A:
a client using retin a may not be a candidate for hair removal.
Electrolysis:
the removal of hair by means of an electric current that destroys the growth of cells in the hair.
Threading:
a temporary hair removal method where cotton thread is twisted and rolled along the surface of the skin, entwining the hair in the thread and lifting it from the follicle.
Sugaring:
another temporary hair removal that involves the use of a thick sugar based paste and is better for sensitive skin.
Opposite Direction:
gently apply pressure to hold the skin taut with one hand and quickly remove the adering wac in the opposite direction of the hair growth. Do not pull the fabric striop straight upwards. (for Waxing)
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