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Ultrasound - physics project

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Victoria Farris

on 27 May 2013

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Transcript of Ultrasound - physics project

Parts of a basic Ultrasound machine •Transducer probe - probe that sends and receives the sound waves
•Central processing unit (CPU) - computer that does all of the calculations and contains the electrical power supplies for itself and the transducer probe
•Transducer pulse controls - changes the amplitude, frequency and duration of the pulses emitted from the transducer probe
•Display - displays the image from the ultrasound data processed by the CPU
•Keyboard/cursor - inputs data and takes measurements from the display
•Disk storage device (hard, floppy, CD) - stores the acquired images
•Printer - prints the image from the displayed data Who invented the Sonogram? An English physician named Ian Donald invented the Sonogram technology in 1957. One year later he tested it to inspect a pregnant woman's unborn child. The Ultrasound & Sonogram Victoria Farris
John Horner How does it work? In ultrasound, the following events happen:

1.The ultrasound machine transmits high-frequency (1 to 5 megahertz) sound pulses into your body using a probe.

2.The sound waves travel into your body and hit a boundary between tissues (e.g. between fluid and soft tissue, soft tissue and bone).

3.Some of the sound waves get reflected back to the probe, while some travel on further until they reach another boundary and get reflected.

4.The reflected waves are picked up by the probe and relayed to the machine.

5.The machine calculates the distance from the probe to the tissue or organ (boundaries) using the speed of sound in tissue (5,005 ft/s or1,540 m/s) and the time of the each echo's return (usually on the order of millionths of a second).

6.The machine displays the distances and intensities of the echoes on the screen, forming a two dimensional image like the one shown below. Different types of Ultrasound ­The ultrasound described so far presents a two-dimensional image, or "slice," of a three-dimensional object (fetus, organ). Two other types of ultra-sound are currently in use, 3-D ultrasound imaging and Doppler ultrasound.

In the past several years, ultrasound machines capable of three-dimensional imaging have been developed. In these, several two-dimensional images are acquired by moving the probes across the body surface or rotating inserted probes. The two-dimensional scans are then combined by specialized computer software to form 3-D images.

­Doppler ultrasound is based upon the Doppler Effect. When the object reflecting the ultrasound waves is moving, it changes the frequency of the echoes, creating a higher frequency if it is moving toward the probe and a lower frequency if it is moving away from the probe. How much the frequency is changed depends upon how fast the object is moving. Doppler ultrasound measures the change in frequency of the echoes to calculate how fast an object is moving. Doppler ultrasound has been used mostly to measure the rate of blood flow through the heart and major arteries. Advantages of 3-D Ultrasound 3-D imaging allows you to get a better look at the organ being examined and is best used for:
•Early detection of cancerous and benign tumors (examining the prostate gland for early detection of tumors, looking for masses in the colon and rectum, detecting breast lesions for possible biopsies)
•Visualizing a fetus to assess its development, especially for observing abnormal development of the face and limbs
•Visualizing blood flow in various organs or a fetus What is Ultrasound? Ultrasound is a medical imaging technique that uses
high frequency sound waves and their echoes. The
technique is similar to the echolocation used by bats,
whales and dolphins as well as SONAR used by
submarines. What type of waves are used?
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