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Respiratory Physiology

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maureen tagsa

on 25 February 2013

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Transcript of Respiratory Physiology

P H Y S I O L O G Y Gas crosses the respiratory membrane by diffusion
Oxygen enters the blood
Carbon dioxide enters the alveoli
Macrophages add protection
Surfactant coats gas-exposed alveolar surfaces Gas Exchange Pulmonary ventilation – moving air in and out of the lungs
External respiration – gas exchange between pulmonary blood and alveoli Events of Respiration Respiratory gas transport – transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide via the bloodstream
Internal respiration – gas exchange between blood and tissue cells in systemic capillaries Completely mechanical process
Depends on volume changes in the thoracic cavity
Volume changes lead to pressure changes, which lead to the flow of gases to equalize pressure Mechanics of Breathing (Pulmonary Ventilation) Pulmonary Respiration Can be caused by reflexes or voluntary actions
Examples
Cough and sneeze – clears lungs of debris
Laughing
Crying
Yawn
Hiccup Nonrespiratory Air Movements Respiratory Volumes and Capacities Normal breathing moves about 500 ml of air with each breath (tidal volume [TV])
Many factors that affect respiratory capacity
A person’s size
Sex
Age
Physical condition
Residual volume of air – after exhalation, about 1200 ml of air remains in the lungs Respiratory Volumes and Capacities Vital capacity
The total amount of exchangeable air
Vital capacity = TV + IRV + ERV
Dead space volume
Air that remains in conducting zone and never reaches alveoli
About 150 ml Respiratory Volumes and Capacities Functional volume
Air that actually reaches the respiratory zone
Usually about 350 ml
Respiratory capacities are measured with a spirometer. Respiratory Volumes and Capacities Respiratory Capacities Sounds are monitored with a stethoscope
Bronchial sounds – produced by air rushing through trachea and bronchi
Vesicular breathing sounds – soft sounds of air filling alveoli Respiratory Sounds Oxygen movement into the blood
The alveoli always has more oxygen than the blood
Oxygen moves by diffusion towards the area of lower concentration
Pulmonary capillary blood gains oxygen External Respiration Carbon dioxide movement out of the blood
Blood returning from tissues has higher concentrations of carbon dioxide than air in the alveoli
Pulmonary capillary blood gives up carbon dioxide

External Respiration Blood leaving the lungs is oxygen-rich and carbon dioxide-poor. Oxygen transport in the blood
Inside red blood cells attached to hemoglobin (oxyhemoglobin [HbO2])
A small amount is carried dissolved in the plasma Gas Transport in the Blood Carbon dioxide transport in the blood
Most is transported in the plasma as bicarbonate ion (HCO3–)
A small amount is carried inside red blood cells on hemoglobin, but at different binding sites than those of oxygen Exchange of gases between blood and body cells
An opposite reaction to what occurs in the lungs
Carbon dioxide diffuses out of tissue to blood
Oxygen diffuses from blood into tissue Internal Respiration Internal Respiration Activity of respiratory muscles is transmitted to the brain by the phrenic and intercostal nerves
Neural centers that control rate and depth are located in the medulla
The pons appears to smooth out respiratory rate
Normal respiratory rate (eupnea) is 12–15 respirations per minute
Neural Regulation of Respiration Hypernia is increased respiratory rate often due to extra oxygen needs Physical factors
Increased body temperature
Exercise
Talking
Coughing
Volition (conscious control)
Emotional factors Factors Influencing Respiratory Rate and Depth Chemical factors
Carbon dioxide levels
Factors Influencing Respiratory Rate and Depth Level of carbon dioxide in the blood is the main regulatory chemical for respiration
Increased carbon dioxide increases respiration
Changes in carbon dioxide act directly on the medulla oblongata Factors Influencing Respiratory Rate and Depth Chemical factors (continued) Oxygen levels
Changes in oxygen concentration in the blood are detected by chemoreceptors in the aorta and carotid artery Information is sent to the medulla oblongata
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