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diabetes

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by

julien cau

on 1 April 2014

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Transcript of diabetes

type I diabetes :

This disease affects childs and adolescents . It's a diabetes which is linked at an autoimmunity . In fact beta cells and langherans islet of the pancreas are destroyed by immunitary system .
As they are destroyed , those cells can't produce insuline which allows glucose to enter in the organism and so diabetics have lots of sugar in their blood
type II diabetes :

It is most common in rich countries and it appears lately and progressively during the life . This diabetes may be divided in different stages :
the prediabetic stage which is characterized by an insulin resistance
the hyperinsulinism stage : the body keeps the glycemia close of the averrage and so beta cells produce lots of insuline to compensate the glucose production .
insulinodefficience stage : the pancreas can't produce no insuline anymore .
A multifactorial disease :
the diabetes' history :

The diabetes is one of the oldest disease which has been described .
4000 before christ : first reference of diabetes in old chinese writing.
1869: Paul langherans described pancreatic cells which produce insuline and gave to them his name .
1889 : Oscar minkowski proved that diabetes comes from a pancreatic trouble thanks to an ablation of a dog's pancreas .


the gestationnal diabetes
The pregnancy often accentuates a state of insulin resistance .
It may cause a diabetes which disappeared after the birth .
This diabetes presents some danger for the childrens like respiratory trouble .
It may be dangerous for the mother too, who risks to have arterial hypertension for instance .
Diabetes
Diabetes is a disease which comes from a dysfunction of glycemia regulation systems .
It shows itself by an huge blood sugar and a high increase of glycemia after eating .
There are differents kinds of diabetes but the most important are the type I diabetes and the type II diabetes.
The diabetes is proved thanks to a blood test :
if you have a glycemia upper than 1,26mg.dl two times when you have an empty stomach so you are diagnose as diabetic.
diabetes
1921 : Frederick Grant Banting explained the insuline role .
1922 : the injection of pancreatic extracts to a young boy in a coma allowed him to be saved .
1923 : production of insuline in lab.
1978: first cloning of human insuline gene
1982:first human artificial insuline appeared on the market .
neonatal diabetes
This diabetes is characterized by the apparition of a hyperglycemia which will disappear few times after 18 months .
Nevertheless those babies risks to contract a diabetes during the adolescence or later .
This diabetes may be linked to a mutation of a gene on the chromosome 6 .

Generally the diabetes may be linked at different factors which increase the risk to be diabetics . Those factors may be genetic or environmental .
The twentieth century is one of the most important in diabetes' research :
Nowadays there are lots of research to struggle against diabetes
the main symptoms :
This disease is mainly linked at an excessive weight : weight gain leads to fatiness production which leads insulinoresistance .
type I diabetes' origin
There is a genetic predisposition to the type I diabetes . Those genes were identified among genes of HLA ( human leukocyte antigenes ) on the short arm of the chromosome 6 . If someone has a specific allele he is greatly predisposed to diabetes .
This diabetes may be linked at viral infection during childhood too or pregnancy ,
indeed, some virus may trigger type I diabetes because their antigens are similar at beta cells .

type II diabetes' origin:
Genetics factors have an important role in the apparition of the diabetes .
There are lots of genes which are implicated in type II diabetes .
Those genes increase the risk to be diabetic : this is the association of those diabetogenes which cause diabetes .
In addition to that a sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet may lead to a diabetes .
Drink one soda a day increase the risk to be diabetics by 22% .
the pima indians
Food brings glucose into the blood circulation
glycemia increase is detected and lead to the release of insuline . the signal causes the glucose storage by
adipous cells , muscles and liver .
This is a nation which is particularly studied for the research on type II diabetes .
Pimas indians are divided in two groups :
Mexicans pimas have a diet poor in grease and are farmers .
Americans pimas have an unhealthy diet and are sedentary
intestines
pancreas
liver
smooth muscles cells
glucose
adipocytes
blood vessel
insuline release
use and glucose
storage
glucose storage in form of triglycerides
glucose storage
signal
type I Diabetes
type II Diabetes
In the case of type I diabetes there is no signal anymore so no insuline release .
In the case of type II diabetes there are less insuline producted and the cells do not use the few insuline producted.
The link between sedentary behaviour and diabetes has been found thanks to pimas indians :
Scientific progress against diabetes :

the insulin infusion system :
It is a little device which measure the glucose rate in the blood . The information is sent to a kind of smartphone which calculates the quantity of insuline which will be injected.
the transplant of langherans islet
A graft of langherans islet may be done on old diabetic . those ones are transplanted on liver injecting cells directly in the portal veine.
80% of the graft are functionnal and te patients transplanted don't have to do insuline injection anymore.
Diabetes is a common disease but not-well treated , indeed ,the treatment is quite heavy based on injection .
The pancreas's role :

Pancreas is the main organ linked at diabetes .
This organ releases insuline and glucagon which have an antagonist effect in the glycemia regulation .
Insuline is a hypoglycemic agent and glucagon is a hyperglycemic agent .
Although they have an opposite effect those both hormones are complementary and atrouble of one of those hormones may be fatal .
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