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The Effect of Table Salt, Sugar, and Road Salt on the Meltin

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on 18 December 2013

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Transcript of The Effect of Table Salt, Sugar, and Road Salt on the Meltin

The Effect of Table Salt, Sugar, and Road Salt on the Melting Rate of Ice
Julia Bruski
B4
Dec. 15, 2013


Research
1. When you add salt to water, it will lower the freezing rate, not the melting. This is the same for road salt. (which I did find out in my experiment)

2. Ice molecules move slow because it is cold, but when you add salt to the ice it will disrupt the molecules making them move faster, causing the ice to melt

3. Sugar has three carbons called trioses

4. Having a strong tendency to absorb water vapor, calcium chloride is used to dry up organic liquids.

5. When the ice starts to freeze, the water amount in the solution becomes lower than the salt amount.
Experimental Design
Independent Variable- Type of substance

Levels of Independent Variable- Road salt, sugar, and table salt

Dependent Variable- Amount of time it takes for the ice to melt

Constants- Amount of liquid in each ice cube, time in freezer, shape of ice cubes, size of cups, kind of cup, room temp. for melting

Control- Pure ice

Number of Trials- 9
Materials and Methods
Plastic cups(27) Funnels(3) Sharpie(1)
Paper cups(27) Stopwatch(1)
Table salt(4.5oz) Data Table(1)
Sugar(4.5 z ) 100 ml graduated
Road salt(4.5oz) cylinder(1)
Distilled water(900ml) Pencil(1)
Freezer(1) Scale(1)
Room at room temp(1) Paper(6)
Styrofoam Cups(27) Knife Sharpener(1)
Materials and Methods
Step 1- Create one table salt solution:
a. Measure .5 oz of salt
b. Measure 100ml of distilled water
c. Pour salt into water and stir until dissolved
d. Pour into paper cup
Step 2- Create one sugar solution:
a. Repeat step 1, but with sugar
Step 3- Create one road salt solution:
a. Repeat first step but with road salt
Step 4- Make pure ice cube:
a. Pour 100ml of distilled water into a paper cup
Tip: Label the cups with the type of solution
Results
Introduction
Goal- The goal of my experiment is to determine the effect of dissolved salt and sugar on the melting rate of ice.

Rationale- The reason the answer to this experiment is important is because you can find a way to melt icy roads and sidewalks better.

Hypothesis- If I add road salt to an ice mixture, then it will melt the fastest
Bibliography
Liebeskind, Herbert. "Calcium Chloride." Encyclopedia Americana. Grolier Online, 2013. Web. 10 Oct. 2013.


Senese, Fred. "Why Does Salt Melt Ice?" General Chemistry Online: FAQ: Solutions:. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Oct. 2013.

Gee, Maurice. Salt. Victoria, BC: Orca Book, 2009. Print
Materials and Methods cont.
Step 5- Freeze all cups for 20 hours
Step 6- Conduct melting test:
a. Set out 4 plastic cups and label with the ice type that will go in that cup
b. Take 4 styrofoam cups and poke a hole in the bottom with a knife sharpener
c. Place styrofoam cups inside of plastic cups
d. Take out 1 cup of each solution from the freezer and set at room temp.
e. Dump each solution into their corresponding cups so the ice is in the styrofoam cups, and the plastic cup is under it
f. Start the stopwatch
g. After the first 15 min, set up the graduated with funnel in the top
h. Pour the water that is in the plastic cup and ice that is in the styrofoam into the funnel
i. Measure the volume of the liquid and record for each cube in trials (ex. Trial 1)
j. Return the melted ice to the plastic cup and solid ice into the styrofoam, again putting the styrofoam cup into the plastic one
k. Repeat g-j, checking every 15 min until all ice cubes are melted. Record the time from the stopwatch when an ice cube is fully melted
l. Repeat all of these steps 8 more times
Step 7- Average results for each group
Results
Results
Results
Results
Results
Results
The road salt ice melted at an average rate of 1 hour and 53 minutes. Table salt ice melted at a rate of 2 hours and 7 minutes. The sugar ice melted at a rate of 5 hours and 12 minutes. Pure ice (the control) melted at an average rate of 7 hours and 22 minutes.
The fastest ice melted was with road salt at 1 hour and 7 minutes. The longest time taken was 7 hours and 54 minutes with pure ice.
Discussion
Interpretation- Since the road salt solution melted the fastest, that means that road salt is the fastest and most efficient way to melt ice.
Comparison- Road salt was made to melt the ice and snow on roads, so my experiment proved it is effective.
Hypothesis- My hypothesis, that the road salt would melt the ice the fastest, was confirmed
Discussion
Reflection- There were really no unexpected things that came up, though the first trial I did had very different melting times than the other trials.
Future- In the future, I would try different solutions and I would be aware of how long the ice cube takes to melt, because it was a very long time.
Problems- The only problems I faced were the length of time it took for the ice to melt. If I were to do this experiment again, I would prepare myself ahead of time.
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