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English as a Lingua Franca and its Implications for the Teaching of English

Éva Illés
by

Kitty Kotorman

on 24 October 2012

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Transcript of English as a Lingua Franca and its Implications for the Teaching of English

English as a lingua franca
and its implications for
the teaching of English

Éva Illés


Introduction
Theoretical background
World Englishes
ELF
Teaching English as a lingua franca
Teaching English as communication
Classroom application of ELF
Implications for ESOL
Conclusions Introduction

English is omnipresent in Europe

processes

top- down bottom-up

1991, Beneke: about 80% of exchanges where English was spoken involved non-native speakers only



native speaker models and norms
vs.
adaption for communicational purposes

intranational purposes : ESL
ex-colonial countries, multilingual social realities

international purposes: ELF effect on the use and study of English
main research paradigms
possible implications for ELT in Europe and ESOL in Britain Theoretical background Kachru's circles (1992)

Expanding Circle
EFL
norm-dependent

Outer Circle
ESL
norm-developing
ex-colonies

Inner Circle
ENL
norm-providing English as an international language Intranational communication
local means
localized EIL
Outer Circle International communication
global means
globalized EIL World Englishes Outer Circle sociolinguistic realities of English:
wide range of function of English
local, nativised varieties

'Liberation linguistics' (Kachru, 1991)
linguistic emancipation
endonormative perspective WE perspective:
pluricentric English language
'with many new Englishes showing hybrid forms'
(Pakir 2009: 229)
legitimate forms of language
serve needs of ESL speech communties New Englishes
varieties of English in their own right
lexical, grammatical, pragmatic, discourse structure differences
express local cultural values and identities English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) new variety of English with specific identifiable features
description in process: VOICE
language between national groups rather than within them

not a second language
exists in its own right described in its own terms rather than by comparison with ENL

not a foreign language different from historical lingua francas:
researches includes native speakers
in small minority

not just a single variety (Euro-English) ELF EFL ESL ENL 'legitimate branch of modern English'
with emerging and changing varieties
'continuously negotiated, hybrid ways of speaking' ELF = EIL
include speakers from all circles
international contexts
ELF
emphasise function:
lingua franca between non-natives polymorphous nature,
involves:
common ground variation:
features shared with ENL

local variation:
differences from ENL
contact between ELF speakers
influence of their first languages ELF Type of communication: ELF contexts of use
'as' : how it is used
focus: form function

Research
broadened scope
underlying general communicative processes
how form&function operate interdependently
different ELF functions surface forms

Specific context
procedural approach definition:
used as a common language of choice (lingua franca)
between different linguacultural background speakers

ELF as communication processes
participant oriented & participant-relevant emic approach
what goes on in participants' minds? Teaching English as a lingua franca replace ENL with EFL in ELT :)
norms and targets other than native speakers'
no need or want to reach native speaker competence
encouraging non-natives to take ownership of the language,
own norms
in&for local contexts Language pedagogy
pluricentrist
developed locally
teachers as independent decision makers in practice Teaching English as communication Methodology
reality of the use of English
suitable and effective in ELF contexts
communication with other than native speakers
different cultural and linguistic needs
openness, readiness to accept diversity, coping with undefined eventualities
awareness of possible differences in production and comprehension:
schema, category, metaphor ...
new strategies:
code switching, repetition, echoing, paraphrasing, avoiding idioms...
shift to interaction from production
moving outside their own language and culture Classroom application of ELF Translation
pragmatic activity
covert translation
reproducing original function within frame and discourse world
context of the target audience
e.g. tourist brochures
informative, relevant, clear
overt translation
similar to a quotation Literature
interpretative procedures
problem setting vs problem solving
meaning-making process
provoke diversity
alternative order
individual apprehension
personal meanings

Choice of texts
needs and interest of students
native or non-native linguistically and schematically engaged learners
English taught as communication
diverse, fluid and relative goals and norms
coping with undefined eventualities Translation Literature Implications for ESOL Conclusions English is shaped by speakers of all of Kachru's Circles,
not just Inner and Outer Circles ELT should de-link itself from native speaker norms and competences,
both language and pedagogy Communication processes in focus of research:
generally: increased cooperativeness communication
particularly: ELF interaction Process-based type of methodology should be adapted in teaching rather than a product-oriented approach:

Continuous problem-solving activity meaning making in real-life, dynamic contexts
instead of native speaker rules of language use 'a legitimate branch of modern English' Thank you
for your attention!

Have a nice day!:) overlaps with ELF,WE
pronunciation
local&international, standard&non-standard varieties
native&non-native, first languages overlaps with EFL
product-oriented approach- predetermined outcomes, measurable technical skills
predefined end
native speaker norms, learners are inferior ESOL Critical approach
critical thinking
intellectual freedom
diverse linguistic&cultural backgrounds

Liberation pedagogy
local level goals&norms
local-made syllabus&course contents

'acquire its own voice' 1. Native speaker oriented communication
Non-native speakers + Native-speakers
Variety of languages target language; and cultures target culture
2. ELF oriented communication
Non-native speakers + Native and non-native speakers
Variety of languages Variety of languages
and cultures and cultures (Illes 2011: 7) 1. Native speaker oriented communication
Non-native speakers + Native-speakers Variety of languages
and cultures Variety of languages
and cultures Variety of languages
and cultures Target language,
target culture 2. ELF oriented communication
Non-native speakers + Native and non-native speakers (Illes 2011: 7)
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