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Rachel Caplan

on 28 August 2014

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Transcript of Biology

Consisting of stems, roots, and leaves, Angiosperm are vascular plants. Angiosperm eggs are fertilized into a seed that is usually in a flower. A strawberry is formed from a seed.
Adaptation of an animal
An adaptation of an animal is a trait that improves their survival and reproduction in their environment. The simpler organisms in the plant adapt to their respective environments through structural, genetics, physiological changes, defense tactics, and in reproduction. Camels adapted fat stored in hump, which helps it to survive long periods without food and water. This mosaic tiling illustrates a camel.
Adaptation of a plant
An adaption of a plant is the adjustment or changes in behavior, physiology, or structure of an organism to become more suited to its environment. Plants have developed many adaptive mechanism to help them grow and reproduce. These adaptations help plants survive in different climates. For example, a cactus display examples of adaptions. To reduce water loss in a dry and hot climate, a cactus's leaves produce hair and contain a waxy coating.
Amylase, an enzyme, breaks down sugars into starch. Initiating the process of digestion, amylase is found in human and some other mammals saliva. This enzyme is found in saliva and pancreatic fluid, shown in this picture.
Actin, found in eukaryote cells, is a cellular protein that forms microfilaments. Actin serves as a key cellular process of muscle contraction. In muscle, Actin is a major component of thin filaments. These filaments along with the motor protein myosis form myofibrosis, which comprises the mechanism of muscle contraction.
Amniotic egg
An amniotic egg is a shelled egg that protects the embryo within a fluid-filled amniotic sac that is given nutrition by a yolk. Reptiles, birds, and mammals; and specifically this chicken egg, produced amniotic eggs to complete their life cycles on dry land. Composed of a calcium carbonate shell, the outside part of the egg is impermeable to water and other substances.

Animal that has a segmented body
Anther and Filament
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A segmented body is the division of a body's plan, where the body is divided into functional units. This bee's body is segmented into three segments: the thorax, six visible segments of abdomen the other three are modified into the sting, legs and antenna.
Annelid, members of the phylim annelida, are segmented worms. These segmented worms contain bilateral symmetry, an open digestive system, segmentation and a body cavity. The body cavity is called the coelem, where the reproductive and digestive organs lay. An earthworm serves as an example of an annelid. The segments of an earthworm are exasperated by internal partitions. Located in most of the segments, the nephridia removes waste. Each segment contains muscles which compress water to form a water based skeleton called hydrostatic skeleton.
The filament is a stalk that acts as the support for a sac it bears called an anther. The anther is a sac where pollen grains develop. The stamen, the male reproductive organ of an angiosperm, consists of the anther and filament. The pollen grains house the angiosperm’s sperm. The Hibiscus has multiple stamens surrounding the female reproductive organ of an angiosperm, a carpel.
An arthropod is an invertebrate animal that contains an exoskeleton, a segmented body, and jointed appendages, and bilateral symmetry (both sides of the body are the same.) The arthropod can be divided into three classes: insects, arnacids, crustaceans, chilopods, and diplopods. Lobsters are categorized as crustaceans. It serves as an example of an arthropod with its two body regions, two pairs of antennae, and five or more pairs of legs.
Archeabacteria are a group of single-celled organisms. Categorized as a prokaryote, archeabacteria lack a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. Archaebacterica can survive in a wide range of habitats, including temperatures above 100 degrees Celsius. Archeabacteria have unique membranes. For example, the type of bond that exists in the phospholipids. The ether bond is more chemically resistant aiding archaebacteria to survive in harsh environments. By the help of archaebacteria withstanding the heat of 100 degrees Celsius, products like lactose free milk can be processed.
Autotrophs, known as producers, are organisms that produce organic compounds from substances in its surroundings. Most autotrophs use a process called photosynthesis to make their food. In photosynthesis, autotrophs use energy from the sun to convert water from the soil and carbon dioxide from the air into a nutrient called glucose. During the process of photosynthesis, not only is sunlight turned into energy, but carbon dioxide is taken from the air and oxygen is released in its place. All plants with green leaves synthesize their own food through photosynthesis. Therefore, this fern displays an autotroph.
Auxin producing area of a plant
Auxin is a plant hormone produced in the tip of the stem, which promotes stem elongation. This bud contains auxin, which allows it to grow.
Abscisic Acid
Batesian mimicry
Biological Magnification
C4 Plant
Calvin Cycle
Conifer leaf
Connective Tissue
Cutile layer of a plant
Deciduous leaf
Dicot plant with flower
Diploid Chromosome number
Epithelial tissue
Flower Ovary
Fruit -fleshy with seed
Fruit-dry with seed
Abscisic acid, a lipid hormone, inhibits cell growth in plants, causing seed and bud dormancy. It also mediates the the adaption of plants in stressful situations, such as; drought. This picture shows one flower growing and one next to it that stopped growing. Abscisic acid inhibited the cell growth of one flower bud in this picture, but not the other.
The key characteristic of these fungi is the basidium, the spore-producing structure. They are known as club fungi, and make up almost one-third of the identified species of fungi. Pictured below, a mushroom is classified as basidiomycete.
Batesian mimicry explains the evolution of a harmless species that has evolved to imitate the warnings signals of a harmful species, like a predator. The organism imitating the protected species is known as the mimic, while the imitated is known as the model. For example, some lizards, pictured below, will do 'pushups' if they are spotted by a predator, showing the predator their strength and discouraging them to pursue.
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Biological magnification is the process where a substance, most commonly a toxic substance like pesticide, increases in concentration in organisms as it moves farther down the food chain. For example, a small fish may ingest some toxic substance. When a larger fish eats that fish, the large fish ingests some of the toxic substance as well.
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Bryophytes, or moss plants, rely on a moist environment to survive. They depend on the moisture in their surroundings for both reproduction and fluid transport. For example, moss is usually found in a moist area near rocks.
C4 plants are plants in which CO2 is fixed into a compound containing four carbon atoms before entering the Calvin Cycle of the process of photosynthesis. This photo depicts one of many C4 plants, corn.
Carbon dioxide is captured in a cycle of reactions known as the Calvin cycle. The Calvin cycle uses carbon dioxide and the ATP and NADPH produced by the first stage of photosynthesis, or the light reactions. The purpose of the Calvin cycle is to create sugars that will be used in cellular respiration. Carbon dioxide diffuses into the stroma of chloroplasts and combines with a five-carbon sugar, ribulose1,5-biphosphate. The calvin cycle enables this plant to grow.
Carbohydrate-fibrous are a plant food that contain high amounts of fiber. This soluble fiber helps food move through the digestive system and provides nutritional value. Green vegetables and nuts, such as almond butter, are foods that have abundant amount of fiber.
Cambium, a cellular plant tissue, is made of cells that have not differentiated but specialize in carrying nutrients. When differentiating, these cells become secondary xylem, secondary phloem, or secondary vascular tissue. The cambium serves in water transportation and cell development. Cambium is usually found in wood, depicted through my wood flooring.
Cellulose is a polysaccharides made up of B-glucose. Cellulose is found in the cell wall of green plans and provides strength, rigidity, and structural support to plants.
Chitin, long chained polymer, is formed of N-acetyglucosamine, a type of glucose. It is found in the cell wall of fungi, insects and crustaceans, providing strength and support. This lobster's outer shell contains chitin.
Chlorophyta is part of the green algae family. They are unicellular and possess photosynthetic pigments. They store starched made from photosynthesis in chloroplasts. They live in both fresh and marine water. This picture illustrates green algae on a rock, which would be in water.
Corals serve as an an example of Cnidarian, which live in aquatic environments. Their bodies consist of a non-living jelly-like substance in between two layers of cells. The basic body plan of the cnidarian is a sac with a central digestive compartments, known as the gastrovascular cavity. To protect against predators and help catch prey, the cnidarian contains the mematocysts, or a stinging organ that contains a cavity of poisonous fluid.
Coelomates are animals, like a worm, that contain a coelom, a fluid-filled body cavity. The coelom surrounds and holds the digestive system and other organs, illustrated through this worm.
A conifer leaf is a leaf from that produces naked seeds from a leaf. They create cones and evergreen needle-like leaves. This picture shows a pine tree, which produces conifer leaves.
Commensalism is the symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits from the interaction while the other remains unaffected. For example, moss lives on the tree and receives light and nutrients. However, the tree is unaffected by the moss, depicted below.
Connective tissue is a kind of animal tissue that supports, connects, or separates different types of tissues and organs of the body. In the elbow, there is connective tissue that joins together the complex muscle and joints to form a hinge.
The outer layer a plant is a thin waxy membrane known as the cuticle. It covers the plants dermal tissue which protects them from water loss. An example of a cuticle layer of a plant is a leaf, as depicted below.

A deciduous tree loses all of its leaves once a year. This seasonal tree loses its leaves annually around autumn.
This hibiscus depicts a dicot plant because its seed have two embryonic leaves. Dicots also have flower parts, such as sepals, petals, and stamens.
A diploid cell is a cell that contains two sets of chromosomes, one set of chromosomes is donated from each parent. The diploid number of a cell is the number of chromosomes in the cell. Humans, like me, have two sets of 23 chromosomes. For humans this equation would be 2n=46, since it is abbreviated as 2n (n= number of chromosomes.)
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Echinoderms are a phylum of marine animals. They are recognizable by their radial symmetry, this means that the creatures have appendages which point outward from the center of the body. This phylum exists exclusively in water. Furthermore, these appendages usually occur in multiples of five, like sea stars and sea urchins.
An ectothermic animal is one who cannot regulate its own body temperature, so its body temperature is according to its surroundings. Therefore, its temperature varies according to its environment. Reptiles and fish are examples of ectotherm animals.
Endosperm is the seed produced in most flowers during the period of fertilization. It surrounds the embryo, providing nutrients like starch. Corn is an example of a endosperm seed.
Endothermic describes a process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from the surroundings in the form of heat. Photosynthesis is an example of an endothermic chemical reaction. In this process, plants, like the one depicted, use the energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen.
Enzymes are made from amino acids, and they are proteins. The purpose of an enzyme in a cell is to allow the cell to carry out chemical reactions very quickly. People who are lactose intolerant are missing an enzyme. The problem arises because the sugar in milk does not get broken into its glucose components. Therefore, it cannot be digested. The intestinal cells of lactose-intolerant people do not produce lactase, the enzyme needed to break down lactose. This shows how crucial enzymes are for the body to function.
Epithelial tissue covers the whole surface of the body. It is made up of cells closely packed and ranged in one or more layers. This tissue is formed to cover or line all internal and external body surfaces. Epithelial tissue that occurs on surfaces on the interior of the body is known as endothelium. Epithelial tissue is usually separated from the underlying tissue by a thin sheet of connective tissue.
Ethylene is a gaseous hormone. Some fruit produce ethylene as ripening begins, such as apples and pears. Ethylene is responsible for the changes in texture, softening, color, and other processes involved in ripening.
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Eubacteria are prokaryote cells, lacking a nucleus. Ebacacteria cells produce through binary fission. By putting milk and eubacteria together in a controlled environment allows the bacteria to ferment. This fermenting creates yogurt, pictured to the right.
Organism whose cells contain their genetic material inside a nucleus, as opposed to prokaryote. Includes all life other than the viruses, archea, and bacteria. Eukaryote include plants, fungi, and animals.
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An exoskeleton is a hard outer shell that covers an organism to protect it and support it. Arthropods, such as crustaceans and insects like this lobster, have an exoskeleton called a cuticle, which is a coat secreted by the epidermis.
Fermentation is a
metabolic process that converts a carbohydrate, like a sugar, into alcohol or an acid. By using this metabolic process, glucose is converted into yeast, which creates ethyl alcohol.

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Below the style is an enlarged area called the ovary. The ovary is where a new plant begins to form. The major function of a flower ovary is to produce four structures: eggs, polor nuclei, seeds, fruits.

The leaf or leaf like part of a palm, fern, or similar plant. It is also a large divided leaf that is typically associated with being a fern leaf however can be also associated with a palm frond as pictured or many others.
Dry Fruits can be divided into those in which the seeds are contained in a seedpod of some sort which opens to release the seeds. Almonds are an example of a fruit with a dry seed.
Fleshy fruits are fruits that have a flesh area between the seeds and the skin. Plums are an example of a fruit with a fleshy seed since the entire fruit is fleshy except for a thin skin and the seeds contained inside.
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Deutersome is a broad classification of animals which include echinoderms and chordates that tend to share certain embryological traits. A sea star is an example of a deutersome.
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