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Transcript of Napoleon
the island of
Corsica The Life of Young Napoleon He was financed a scholarship for the young Napoleon to the military college of Brienne in France because his father, Charles, curried favor with the new french regime. He left to begin an education there in 1777 at age of eight. In 1784, he moved on to the Ecole Militaire to spend a year studying more advanced tactics and strategy. He graduated 42nd in his class of 52. In 1785, when Napoleon was 16, he graduated from Ecole Militaire and became a Second Lieutenant in the Army for
Ambituous August 10, 1792, a Paris mob overran the royal family's house at the Tuileries, and the killed and massacred the Swiss Guard that protected the royalty. Napoleon was there, saw and witnessed all of it. This taught Napoleon how powerful people could be once mobilized. Napoleon finally returned to military duty in 1793 and became a captain He was thrown in jail when more moderate factions of the revolutionaries executed Robspierre, but was released when others thought he was so valuable as a military commander. On October, 1795, he was made second in command of the army of the interior and he defeated the royalists, preserved order in Paris, and said the Directory's government bringing honor t o his country. France was in chaos, Russia was making conquests and the "Cisalpine Republic had crumbled. Napoleon abandoned his position in Egypt to overthrow the Directory. Napoleon as First Consul On November 9, 1799, Napoleon achieved a coup d' etat against the Directory, along with Talleyrank and the revolutionary Father Sieyes. He made a new government that was to be called the "Consulate", rule by three consuls, in which Napoleon was to be made "First Consul". As a result of the defeat in the Battle of Marengo, Napoleon was able to strong-arm Austrian Emperor Francus II into signing the Treaty of Luneville on February 9, 1801. Britain was intimidated by this, and signed a peace agreement with France on March 27, 1802. As First Consul, Napoleon tried pushing for peace. but England and Austria rejected his proposals. When they denied his proposals, Napoleon, in 1800, marched his army through the snowy Great Saint Bernard Pass and defeated the Austrian army by talking them by surprise in italy. he defeated them at the Battle of Marengo on June 14, 1800. Napoleon worked very hard to obtain the support of the Royalist factions, and he also worked to improve French relations with the Catholic Church, because Catholicism was the majority religion in France. On July 15, 1801, he signed a Concordat with Pope Pius VII, agreeing, that the Church officially recognized the French Republic and gave back property that it had obtained dring the chaos of the Revolution. In exchange, Napoleon, officially pronounced that catholicism was the religion of "most French", and was the officially religion of the Republic, though he still tolerated the practice of all religions in France, but Napoleon did all of this in a carfully worded agreement. When Napoleon was most popular, around 1800, he worked hard to centralize French government agencies. he created a "Bank of France" to improve French financial stability and created the first French secondary school, or lycees. His mmotive in doing this was to provide better training for government employees, but the lycess were ultimately to serve as the basis for the current Frech secondary school system. In 1803, the British violated the Peace of Amiens, by backing a royalist plot to reinstate Louis de Bourbon-Conde on the French throne. The plot failed and Napoleon's forces captured the Bourbon Prince on March 15, 1804, trying him as a criminal and executing him. I think this event impacted France because in the life of young Napoleon he was a hero. If all these things in his life, his father currying favor to get him a scholarship, he might never have gone to military school, gotten general, or be leader of France. When Napoleon was in the royal family's residence, if he wasnt there, he might have never realized that people could be powerful when mobilized and organized. He maybe wouldnt seek to conquer Europe, if he didnt see this I think this event didnt bring France a step foward to a more peaceful and just society because when mob overran the royal family's residence, they massacred the Swiss Guard. After the National Assemble was made, eventually it was disassembled and the king was executed. After that, it also brought the Reign of Chaos, executing more than 200,000 people. I dont think this brought France into a peaceful society, it didnt help at all. Napoleon was even thrown in jail after Robespierre was executed. One after another, all the governments were disasembled, and the leaders executed. This doesnt speak much of what will eventually happen to Napoleon. The Russian Campaign Napoleon's campaign in Russia is one of the most interesting and epic stories of modern war. Napoleon led a huge army of 600,000 including Frenchmen, their coerced allies and some volunteers. After initial successes against the retreating Russian army, the French finally realized that they had fallen into a trap. They had to retreat from due to exposure to the cold and starvation. There was 1-third of the original force that survived the cold, starvation and the guerrilla warfare. The Russians used the "Scorched Earth" strategy. They avoided a direct confrontation with Napoleon. They retreated at each engagement, drawing the French into the interior of Russia. In 1804, the Napoleonic code was introduced. It had a set of clear laws. The code was introduced into to other parts of Europe conquered by Napoleon, like Italy, Spain, and some parts of Germany. Napoleon's relations with Russia were always edgy, even after its defeat at French hands in 1807. In 1810, Napoleon's was convinced that Alexander I, was preparing hostiles again and was forming an alliance with the English. He decided on a preemptive strike. He was so caught up, he forgot to think it out. Napoleon as Emperor The Russian Campaign on December 1804 Napoleon crowned himself Emperor and made Josephine his Empress As Emperor, Napoleon's next move was to recreate an aristocracy, a French tradition that was removed during the Revolution Emperor Napoleon commissioned all of the leading artists to create art that depicted a positive view off the Empire France lost the culminating Battle of the Nations at Leipzig in 1813. The combined Russian, Prussian, and Austrian forced won at the battle. Eventually occupied Europe was then gradually freed of French troops and governors. In March 1814 Paris was occupied, and Napoleon was forced to abdicate As Emperor Napoleon led a double life, in one hand he was a stately Emperor cloaked in Ermine Robes. in the other hand he was an obsessive workaholic. After murdering the Bourdon prince, Napoleon realized that he was never going to get support of the Royalists he needed. Napoleon becoming Emperor impacted France in a good way. He managed to recreate an aristocracy which was a lost French tradition due to the Revolution. he made the Royal Court a public spectacle of pomp and elagance. the country was at peace for a short while. Before Napoleon was defeated he wrote one last note to Josephine, the note stated "Never forget him who has never forgotten you and will never forget you". In February 1815, Napoleon managed to slip past his guards and escape Elba, he slipped past interception of a British ship. Upon his return the Emperor was immediately arrested. This was the beginning of the "Hundred Days" Era. Napoleon started making minor reforms to try and increase his support, he promised a "Democratic Society" . Allied forces occupied Paris on March 31, 1814. Napoleon abdicated on April 6, 1814. They exiled Napoleon to Elba. Their royalists took control and restored Louis XVIII to the throne. on March 13, 1815 at the Congress of Vienna, the European Powers decided to declare Napoleon an outlaw to the continent, due to the aftermath of Napoleon's conquests all over Europe. At this point Napoleon was on the verge of losing the war against Russia in Elba, so he fled back to France, only to be arrested. The outcome off his arrest led to him being exile from the country, causing the end of the Napoleonic Period. Napoleon sold the Louisiana Territory to the newly independent U.S. on April 30, 1803. This wasn't q quick to sell decision. It was thoroughly thought out. He didn't want to divert needed resources away from his military efforts in Europe for a war with the United States and he needed the money for France. This event because There are many events in this era. There was when Napoleon sold Louisiana to the U.S.A, an important milestone in our country and when Napoleon first came to power. Napoleon abandoned his position in Egypt, where he was losing anyway, and went to perform a coup d'état. He managed to sneak past Nelson's blockade and made a surprise appearance. He knew people hated the Directory, and used that advantage to perform a coup d'état. Napoleon sold Louisiana so he could have money for France and he didn't want to start a war with U.S.A and Britain interfering. This event did represent a step toward a more peaceful and just society in France because now they don't have to worry about another country joining in the war against France. Now Napoleon can lead France because he is a smart man. He figured out that he needed to sell the Louisiana Territory, he is a true genius at war. He keeps friendly with America. as you know later in the 1800s, around the 1880s, France gave America the Statue of Liberty, this purchase may have kept France friendly with the U.S.A. The Russia Campaign was one of the most ill thought out plan in Napoleon's life. He didn't plan on anything, he just decided to try a preemptive on Russia and to get them. Due to his ill thought out plan, it caused Paris to be occupied and occupied Europe was gradually freed of French troops and governors. It affected France because now that Paris was occupied, it was no longer in the hands of Napoleon. He was forced to abdicate. Just because of his ill well plan, he caused his whole plan and all he did to get France for nothing. This event DID NOT represent a step toward a more peaceful and just society in France. Due to his ill thought idea, it caused France to be apprehended from Napoleon and all he done was taken from him because he couldn't plan it out. If he just plebiscite it with others he trusted, maybe the whole outcome would have changed. He didn't want to do that, he just ordered a preemptive strike. He cause more than 2/3 of his 600,000 men to be killed because of his ill thought plan and action. Now , he lost the Battle of the Nations, and now the combined forces of Russia, Prussia, and Austria now own France. They reinstated the monarchy and now all the thirst estates and bourgeois went through was for nothing, just to get back to where they were. Now, they will be mad because now its goes back to the way it was. This event impacted France because now France now got more land because the Church gave back the land it had got during the chaos of the Revolution.In return Napoleon pronounced that Catholicism was the religion of "most French", and thus the official religion of the Republic. Napoleon also made a "Bank of France" to improve French financial stability and he created the lycees. He made the Napoleonic code. He helped French not be in financial trouble not much anymore. He helped with military education and created financial stability. I think the event represented a step toward a more peaceful and just society in France. He improved French financial stability by creating a "Bank of France". He created the first French lycees based on the military educational system. he made the Napoleonic code. He tolerated the practice of all religions in France, allowing all man and woman that don't celebrate Catholicism to be in France without any harm. Napoleon's 100 days On March, 1 Napoleon left Elba with three intentions, Stake his claim to rule France, resume his conquest of Europe, and liberate France from its allies. The restored monarchy offended the Frenchmen in so many ways thag they took to Napoleon to avenge them. Napoleon's Final Days By the Beginning of 1821 Napoleon was convinced he was not to last out the year on St. Helena. By: Ire and Kyle