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Transcript of Pedagogy Presentation
Ali Khan, Huw Bowen, Oyoni Gbla & Ethan Drury
Identifying the teaching styles used provides coaches with the knowledge to enhance their coaching practice and improve performance
Each coach will have their preferred teaching styles, influenced by their pedagogical approach (Leach & Moon, 1999). However these styles may not meet the requirements of their athletes or the coaching environment (Jones, 2010; Deci et al., 1982)
Therefore the purpose of this study is to identify the affects of different teaching styles on athletic performance
Athletes know more than anyone which styles are most influential on their performance (Cullingford, 1991). Implementing the appropriate teaching styles has been found to improve the coach-athlete relationship and athletic performance (Jones, 2010)
Previous research has predominately analysed P.E, with little research studying athletes' perceptions of teaching styles and their associated outcomes (Sanchez, et al., 2012)
Earlier studies: (McCleary, 1976 & Bryant 1974) failed to find differences between teaching styles on skill and cognitive development
Practice, reciprocal and inclusion style improved performance in hockey accuracy tests Goldberger et al., (1983)
Practice style improved tennis stoke performance more than the command style (Mariani, 1970)
Practice style was found beneficial for low skilled individuals learning the Volleyball spike, however the command style was most beneficial when learning the set (Harrison et al., 1995)
Practice, inclusion and Learner designed styles were perceived positively by students as it enabled opportunity without too much flexibility (Cothran, et al., 2000)
Can university rugby players identify the different teaching styles used by their coach?
What are the perceived outcomes on athlete performance?
Teaching Styles Spectrum
Three male rugby union players volunteered to participate
All 21 years of age
Playing experience: Mean = 8 years
Years playing under current coach: Mean = 3 years
1. Ethical Considerations
2. Video analysis of training session
3. Rationale for focus group
4. Implementation of the focus group
- Promotes discussion (Kitzinger, 1995)
- Enables the researcher to explore participant knowledge, understanding and experiences (Kitzinger, 1995).
- Demographic questions-Participants defined characteristics of successful performance
- Participants Identified teaching styles on video
- Impact on performance – Athlete perspective
- Closure of focus group
Deductive analysis was conducted for this study
Data was analysed into three aspects; general dimensions, emergent themes and raw data as illustrated below
Analysis and discussion of findings
Successful Performance defined as improvement in skill development, learning, high self-efficacy and winning games
“In a game it’s all about winning, but in training it’s about completing your skills.”
Athletes identification of teaching styles
Teaching Styles impact on performance
Helpful when learning a new skill (Deci et al., 1982; Cai, 1997; Thomson, 2009)
Over reliant on coach (Morgan et al., 2005)
Opportunity to express yourself
Opportunity to explore new skills, supporting game performance (Morgan et al., 2005)
Gets you thinking
Learner Designed/ Inclusion:
Allowed all participants to take part in the session. (Cothran et al., 2000, Goudas et al., 1995)
Allowed for skill development despite injury (Jenkins & Todorovich (2002)
Players were able to select position specific drills if injured
Beneficial when teaching sport specific skills - Line out throwing - Cai (1997)
Master different skills (Beckett, 1990; Harrison et al, 1995)
Summary of findings
4/5 Teaching styles were identified
Each style aided successful performance within their specific context, although some were more favourable than others as proposed by Kolovelonis et al (2011)
Athletes were able to identify the impact of each teaching style on the agreed upon definition of performance
Use of a focus group
Only filmed one session
Only used male participants from one sport (Cothran et al., 2000)
Coaches to identify their own use of teaching styles and its impact on performance
To use different sports and ability levels to assess the use of teaching styles
Bryant, W. (1974). Comparison of the practice and reciprocal styles of teaching
Cai, S. (1997). College student attitude to toward three teaching styles in Physical Education classes. College Student Journal, 31, 251-261.
Cothran, D., Kulinna, P. H., & Ward, E. (2000). Students’ experiences with and perceptions of teaching styles. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 34, 93-102.
Cullingford, C. (1991). The inner world of school: Children’s ideas about schools. London: Cassell, Educational Limited
Deci, E. L., Spiegel, N. H., Ryan, R. M. Koestner, R. Kauffman, M. (1982). Effects of performance standards on teaching styles: Behaviour of controlling teachers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 852-859
Harrison, J. M., Fellingham, G. W., Buck, M.M., & Pellett, T. L (1995). Effects of practice and command styles on rate of change in volleyball performance and self efficacy of high-, medium-, and low-skilled learners. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 14, 328-339.
Goldberger, M., Gerney, P., & Chamberlain, J. (1982). The effects of three styles of teaching on the sport psychomotor performance of fifth grade children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 53, 116-124.
Goudas, M., Biddle, S., Fox, K., & Underwood, M. (1995). It ain't what you do, it's the way that you do it! Teaching style affects children's motivation in Track and Field lessons. Retrieved February 25, 2013 from http://www.spectrumofteachingstyles.org/pdfs/literature/Goudas%20(2).pdf.
Jenkins, M., & Todorovich, J. R. (2002). Inclusion Style of teaching-A powerful relationship with national standards. Teaching Elementary Physical Education, 13, 19-21.
Jones, D. C. (2010). Hey coach, one teaching style does not fit all! ASCA Newsletter, 2012, 11-13.
Kitzinger, J. (1995). Qualitative Research: Introducing focus groups . BMJ, 1995, 299-..
Leach, J., & Moon, B. (1999). In Recreating Pedagogy. J. Leach & B. Moon (Eds.), Learners and Pedagogy (pp. 265-275). London: Sage.
Mariani , T. (1970). A comparison of the effectiveness of the command method and the task method of teaching the forehand and back tennis stroke. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 41, 171-184.
McCleary, E. (1976). A Comparison of the task and problem solving styles in teaching kindergarden and first grade students a unit of self-teaching activies …
Morgan, K., Kingston, K., & Sproule, J. (2005). Effects of different teaching styles on the teacher behaviours that influence motivational climate and pupils’ motivation in physical education. European Physical Education Review, 11, 257-285.
Mosston, M., & Ashworth, S. (2002). Teaching Physical Education. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.
Sanchez, B., Byra, M. Wallhead, T. L (2012). Students’ perceptions of the command, practice, and inclusion styles of teaching. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 17, 317-330.
Thomson, W. C. (2009). Mosston’s style of teaching: A review of the command style. Virginia Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 21-22.
"If gives your more confidence on the pitch to make your own decisions, whereas if the coach is telling you what to do, you can't make your own decisions".
"It makes it worthwhile coming to training, you still feel part of the team, and get something out of it"
"When you first start learning it does help, afterwards you need to teach yourself .... you can't be reliant on your coach all the time"
"It definitely helps, because you can transfer the skills into the game. You don't have to think about it, it becomes second nature"