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African American History: Chapter 13
Transcript of African American History: Chapter 13
"Let us with a fixed, firm, hearty, earnest, and unanswering determination move steadily on and on, fanning the flame of true liberty until the last vestige of oppression shall be destroyed, and when that eventful period shall arrive, when, in the selection of rulers, both State and federal, we shall know no north, no east, no south, no west, no white nor colored, no democrat nor republican, but shall choose men because of their moral and intrinsic value, their honesty and integrity, their love of unmixed liberty, and their ability to perform well the duties to be committed to their charge. "
Question 1: What political offices were black men elected to- and not elected to- during Reconstruction?
Elections were held in 1868 (for the ratification and election of officials)
White Democratic responses varied
Some Democrats boycotted the election
Others participated but voted against the ratification
Many of the states supporters tried to elect as many Democrats as possible
Congress depended on majority of the votes to ratify the constitution
Majority of citizens in each state voted to ratify the constitution and black men were elected to office.
Black Political Leaders
1,465 black men held political office in the South
White republicans dominated politics during reconstruction
The number of black officials reflected the size of that state's African American population
Black people were the majority of Mississippi, South Carolina, and Louisiana
Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas are made up of about 25%-40% of the black population
So there was a lesser number of black elected in those states
Many black men chose not to run for important political offices in fear of angry white southerners
Republicans took over in 1868
But in 1870 black men had been elected to many key positions
Blanche K. Bruce and Hiram Revels represented Mississippi in the U.S. Senate
In 1870 Joseph Rainey served in the House of Representatives along with 14 other black men.
Johnathan J. Wright served 7 years as a supreme Court Justice in South Carolina
Question 2: What issues were of most concern to black political leaders, and what were the results of their attempts to initiate change in South?
Education and Social Welfare
Black leaders promoted education among black people.
Republicans created systems of public education throughout the South.
The task was both difficult and expensive.
Schools had to be built, teachers employed, and text books provided.
Taxes were used to afford this public education.
In rural areas schools were not built and teachers weren't paid.
People, black and white, opposed compulsory education laws.
Parents decided if their children attended school or worked to help family.
White parents refused to send children to integrated schools.
Black Politicians were often victims of racial discrimination when they tried to use public transportation, hotels, and restaurants.
The Meaning of freedom: The Failure of Reconstruction
Education and Social Welfare cont.
There were no laws, at first, that required segregation in public schools before and after reconstruction
Black parents were more concerned that their children attend school and less about the schools being integrated.
New Orleans was one of the first places schools were integrated.
Reconstruction Leaders supported higher education
In 1872 (Mississippi) legislators took advantage of the Federal Morrill Land- grant Act
This provided states with funds for agriculture and Mechanical
White-owned businesses excluded black patrons in both the North and South.
In 1864 Civil War hero Robert Smalls was ejected from a street car in Philadelphia
In Arkansas, Mifflin Gibbs and W. Hines Furbish successfully sued a local saloon after they had been denied service.
In South Carolina, Johnathan J. Wright won $1, 200 in a lawsuit against a railroad after he purchased a 1st class ticket, but was forced to ride in 2nd class coach
Black Leaders determination to open public facilities to all people revealed deep divisions between themselves and white republicans.
Several southern states introduced bills to prevent people from excluding black people from restaurants, barrooms, hotels, concert halls, auditoriums, railroad coaches, streetcars, and steamboats.
White republicans and all democrats attacked proposals and efforts to promote social equality.
White politicians blacked these laws n most states.
South Carolina (with majority of black population) enacted on these laws, but it was not efficiently enforced.
Mississippi's republican governor, James L. Alcorn vetoed a bill to outlaw racial discrimination.
In Alabama and North Carolina, civil rights bills were defeated and in Georgia and Arkansas, they enacted measure that encouraged segregation.
Black Politicians promoted economic development for black people.
White landowners fired black agricultural laborers near the end of growing season and then did not pay them.
Some landowners were dishonest while others were in debt and could not pay their workers.
Black politicians secured laws that required laborers to be paid before crops were sold.
Black leaders who had been slaves wanted to regulate wages; however, proposals failed due to Republicans that did not believe states had any authority to regulate wages and prices.
Legislators also enacted measures that protected the land and property of small farmer against seizures for non payment of debts.
Black and white farmers who lost land, tools, animals, and other property were unlikely to recover financially.
"Stay Laws" prohibited authorities from taking property.
Republicans hoped these laws would weaken support from white yeomen for the Democratic Party and draw them into the Republican Party.
Black leaders were unable to provide land to landless black and white farmers.
Black and white leaders had not rights to distribute land
South Carolina was an exception and its legislature created a state land commission in 1869
The commission could purchase and distribute land to freedmen
It also gave men loans on generous terms to pay for land, but the commission was corrupt and inefficiently managed and had little fertile land.
Over 14,000 black and a few white families acquired land in South Carolina and their descendants still posses some of the land today.
" i want to see the man who owns one or two thousand acres of land, taxed a dollar on the acre, and if they can't pay the taxes, sell their property to the highest bidder... and then we Negroes shall become the land holders."- Abraham Galloway
Question 7: What was the methods used and results of attempts to “redeem” the southern states?
There was violent methods used to redeem the southern states.
The Colfax Massacre, that was in the town of Colfax, Louisiana were at least 105 African Americans were murdered on Easter Sunday.
Shotgun policy in MS, where white men resorted to violence and intimidation against black and white Republicans
Hamburg Massacre, white Democrats attacked black republicans in July 1876 in South Caroline, 5 blacks were murdered
Ellenton Massacre where between 30 and 100 African Americans were killed by white men after an alleged assault by a black man on an elderly white woman
Compromise of 1877
Allowed Republican Rutherford B Hayes to become president and Democrats complete political control of Louisiana, Florida, and South Carolina
Question 3: Why were so many white southerners opposed to black and white Republicans exercising political powers?
Black and white Republicans often disagreed on political issues and strategy. The Republican Party in the South constantly split into factions as groups fought with each other. Most disagreements were over who should run for and hold political office. During Reconstruction, hundreds of would-be Republican leaders—black and white—sought public offices. Then Republicans ran against each other and against the Democrats in the general election. It was not for political success. These bitter contests were based less on race and issues than on the desire to gain an office that would pay even a modest salary. Most black and white Republicans were not well off. It was difficult for black leaders, as well as white leaders, to be renominated and reelected to more than two terms. This caused inexperienced leadership and added to Republican woes.
Even if black and Republican leaders had been less prone to conflict, they might still have failed to sustain themselves for long. Most white Southerners were fiercely opposed to letting black men vote or hold office. Because black people voted did not mean they ruled during Reconstruction, but many white people failed to understand that. For most white Southerners, the only acceptable political system was one that did not include black men and the Republican Party. As far as most white people were concerned, the end of slavery did not make black people their equals. They did not accept the Fourteenth Amendment. They attacked Republican governments and their leaders unrelentingly. White Southerners blamed the Republicans for an epidemic of waste and corruption in state government. But most of all, they considered it outrageous that former slaves could vote and hold political office. White Southerners were determined to rid themselves of Republicans and having to live with black men who possessed political rights. White Southerners would restore white Democrats to power. This did not mean defeating black and white Republicans in elections; it meant removing them from any role in politics. White Southerners believed any means were justified in exorcising their purpose.
This thinking gave rise to militant terrorist organizations, such as the Ku Klux Klan, the Knights of the White Camellia, the White Brotherhood, and the Whitecaps. Threats, intimidation, beatings, rapes, and murder would restore conservative white Democratic rule and force blacks back into submission. The Ku Klux Klan was founded in Pulaski, Tennessee, in 1866. It was originally a social club for Confederate veterans who adopted secret oaths and rituals—similar to the Union Leagues, but with far more deadly results. One of the key figures in the Klan’s rapid growth was Confederate general Nathan Bedford Forrest, who became its grand wizard. The Klan drew its members from all classes of white society, not just from among the poor. Businessmen, lawyers, physicians, and politicians were active in the Klan as well as farmers and planters. The Klan and other terrorist organizations functioned mainly where black people were a large minority and where their votes could affect the outcome of elections. Klansmen virtually took over areas of western Alabama, northern Georgia, and Florida’s panhandle. Often wearing hoods and masks to hide their faces, white terrorists embarked on a campaign of violence rarely matched and never exceeded in American history. Mobs of marauding terrorists beat and killed hundreds of black people—and many white people. Black churches and schools were burned. Republican leaders were routinely threatened and often killed. The black chairman of the Republican Party in South Carolina, Benjamin F. Randolph, was murdered as he stepped off a train in 1868. Black legislator Lee Nance and white legislator Solomon G. W. Dill were murdered in 1868 in South Carolina. In 1870 black lawmaker Richard Burke was killed in Sumter County, Alabama, because he was considered too influential among “people of his color.”
Black and white Republicans disagreed on political issues and strategy.
The Republican Party in the South split into groups fought and with each other
Most disagreements about who should run political office.
These bitter contests were based on the desire to gain an office that would pay a modest salary.
It was difficult for black and white leaders to be renominated and reelected to more than two terms.
Most white Southerners opposed to letting black men vote or hold office.
For most white Southerners, the only acceptable political system did not include black men and the Republican Party.
They attacked Republican governments and their leaders unrelentingly.
White Southerners blamed the Republicans for an epidemic of waste and corruption in state government.
White Southerners were determined to rid themselves of Republicans and having to live with black men who possessed political rights.
White Southerners would restore white Democrats to power.
White Southerners believed any means were justified in exorcising their purpose.
Question 4: Why were the Ku Klux Klan founded, and how effective was it?
One of the militant terrorist organizations was the Ku Klux Klan
Others were the Knights of the White Camellia, the White Brotherhood, and the Whitecaps.
Threats, intimidation, beatings, rapes, and murder restored conservative white Democratic rule and force blacks back into submission.
The Ku Klux Klan was founded in Pulaski, Tennessee, in 1866.
It was originally a social club for Confederate veterans who adopted secret oaths and rituals—similar to the Union Leagues
One of the key figures in the Klan’s rapid growth was Confederate general Nathan Bedford Forrest
The Klan drew its members from all classes of white society
This included: Businessmen, lawyers, physicians, politicians, farmers and planters.
The Klan and other terrorist organizations functioned mainly where black people were a large minority and where their votes could affect the outcome of elections.
Klansmen took over areas of Alabama, northern Georgia, and Florida’s panhandle.
They often wore hoods and masks to hide their faces
Black churches and schools were burned.
Republican leaders were routinely threatened and often killed.
Question 5: What were the origins and effects of the fifteenth amendment and the Enforcement Acts?
Enforcement acts were three bills passed by the U.S. Congress
This was between the years 1870-1871
This involved the 14th and 15th amendment
The 15th amendment banned racial discrimination in voting
This was to improve conditions forn blacks and free slaves
The main target was the Ku Klux Klan who themselves targeted blacks.
Question 6: How and why did black and white republicans lose control of every southern state by 1877?
The blacks and white republicans lost control of every southern state in 1877
The old conservative democrats regained the state governments.
Blacks who unanimously voted were becoming disenfranchised.
Most white southerners remained absolutely opposed to letting black men vote or hold a position in office.
They felt it was only acceptable for the political system to excluded black men and the Republican party.
Most of them did not believe that the end of slavery of black men made them equal. They did not accept the 14th amendment and attacked the Republican Government.
They blamed the Republican for the epidemic of waste and corruption in the state. The also considered it outrages that former slaves could vote and hold office as well.
In the 1830s, the U.s. government forced the 5 civilized tribes: from their homelands to Indian Territory or Oklahoma
Civil Rights Act of 1875- A federal legislation that outlawed racial discrimination and the use of public accommodations.
Freedman's Saving Bank- a private financial constitution chartered by congress in 1865
''shotgun policy"- In 1875, white men resorted to violence and intimidation against black and white Republican s to regain political control of the state for conservation Democrats.
The 15th Amendment
This stipulated that the right to vote could not be denied on account of race, color, or because a person had been a slave.
Also non as the force acts were passed to undermined the KKK and other terrorist organizations in the 1870s by allowing the military force to suspend the habeas corpus
The Freedmen's Bank
This was one of the casualties of the financial crisis which failed in 1874. It was founded in 1865. However, the bank's advertising featured a picture of Lincoln and many blacks assumed that it was a federal agency.
The North and Reconstruction
Klan violence did not overthrow any state governments, but it undermined freedmen's confidence in the ability of these governments to protect them.
The Civil Rights Act of 1875
Before reconstruction expired, congress made this final gesture to protect blacks.
It was originally indented to open public accommodations to all people regardless of race.
After it was passed no attempt was made to enforce the law.
The End of Reconstruction
It ended causing Democrats to demand redemption
They wanted the government back from the blacks and republicans