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Chapter 13: Energy

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Johanna Jezowski

on 13 November 2012

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Transcript of Chapter 13: Energy

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Energy Chapter 13 Energy: The ability to do work or cause change

Work is the transfer of energy. Power is the rate at which energy is transferred, or the amount of energy transferred in a unit of time.

Power = (Energy transferred)/Time

Types of Energy - Kinetic Energy
Kinetic energy is energy due to motion.

Kinetic energy (KE) depends on the mass of the object and the velocity of the object.

Calculating Kinetic Energy:
KE = (1/2)x Mass x (Velocity)^2
Potential Energy (PE)

PE is stored energy that results from the position or shape of an object

We call this kind of energy potential energy because it has the potential to do work.

Gravitational potential energy (GPE) is potential energy related to an object's height.

GPE = Mass * Gravity * Height

We know that Mass * Gravity = Weight, so

GPE = Weight * Height

Elastic Potential Energy: energy associated with objects that can be stretched or compressed

Section 2: Forms of Energy Mechanical Energy: energy associated with the position and motion of an object

Mechanical Energy is the combination of KE and PE, so ME = PE + KE

Thermal Energy: the total potential and kinetic energy of the PARTICLES in an object.

Electrical Energy: the energy of electric charges
Example: getting shocked when touching a metal doorknob

Chemical Energy: potential energy stored in the chemical bonds that hold chemical compounds together

Chemical Energy: potential energy stored in the chemical bonds that hold chemical compounds together

Nuclear Energy: a type of potential energy that is stored in the nucleus of an atom

Electromagnetic Energy: energy that travels in waves
Examples: sunlight, X-rays, microwaves, and radio waves Section 3: Energy Transformations and Conservation Most forms of energy can be transformed into other forms. A change from one form of energy to another is called an energy transformation.

Energy can be transformed more than one time. Can you think of an example when this would happen?

Section 1: What is Energy? Transformation Between Potential and Kinetic Energy Transformations between potential energy and kinetic energy are very common. One example of this transformation is seen with a pendulum.

How does this transformation work with a pole vault? (page 457) Conservation of Energy Law of Conservation of Energy: energy cannot be created or destroyed.

What about the energy that we say was lost due to friction? Is energy still conserved? Why or why not?

Just like energy can be transformed, matter can be transformed to energy. Since matter can be transformed to energy, we say that matter and energy together are always conserved.

Section 4: Energy and Fossil Fuels Fossil Fuels: fuels that are used today but were made from materials that formed hundreds of years ago.
Examples: coal, petroleum, and natural gas

Fossil fuels contain energy that came from the sun. The sun is the source of energy for most of Earth's processes
When the sun's energy reaches Earth, living things transform some of this energy into chemical energy. The living things use some of this energy and store the rest. When the living things die, the chemical energy is trapped in them. This is the source of the chemical energy found in coal. Use of Fossil Fuels Fossil fuels can be burned to release the chemical energy stored millions of years ago.

Combustion: the process of burning fuels. This is when the fuel's chemical energy is transformed to thermal energy. This thermal energy can be used in many different ways. ANY QUESTIONS?
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