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ASTRONOMY

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Krishann Hidalgo

on 25 September 2014

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Transcript of ASTRONOMY

ASTRONOMY
Astronomy is the study of the universe, namely the objects we
observe, like the Moon, Sun, and planets in our Solar System;
stars; our Milky Way Galaxy, and other galaxies; and, a host of
other celestial objects and phenomena, like nebulae, and black
holes.
FORMATION OF THE MOON

The Fission Theory
- the moon was once part of the Earth and somehow separated from the Eath early in the history of the Solar System.
ASTRONOMY
FORMATION OF THE EARTH
FORMATION OF EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE
Observational Astronomy
-Observational astronomy is one of the oldest forms of astronomy.

- is a division of the astronomical science that is concerned with recording data, in contrast with theoretical astrophysics, which is mainly concerned with finding out the measurable implications of physical models. It is the practice of observing celestial objects by using telescopes and other astronomical apparatus.
Theoretical Astronomy
- Theoretical astronomy comes up with theories about stars, how galaxies form, the structure of the universe, and how smaller particles related to the universe.

- Theoretical astronomy is a newer field of astronomy.
Solar Astronomy
- it is the study of our sun.
Planetary Astronomy
- the study of planets, moons, dwarf planets, comets, asteroids, and other bodies that orbit our sun, as well as planets in other solar systems.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF ASTRONOMY
Stellar astronomy
- it is the study of stars and how they evolve.
Galactic astronomy
- it is the study of galaxies, including our own galaxy, called the Milky way.
Extragalactic Astronomy
- it is the study of objects outside our galaxy.
Cosmology
- it is the study of the structure of the universe.
Astrobiology
- it is the study of life in the universe.
Astrochemistry
- it is the study of chemicals found in space.
Cosmochemistry
-is the the study of chemicals found in our solar system.
Formation of
the Solar System
 NEBULAR HYPOTHESIS—states that stars form in massive and dense clouds of molecular hydrogen – giant molecular clouds.
 FISSION THEORY by George Darwin—his theory is that the moon was formed while the earth was rapidly spinning while it was still molten.
 CAPTURE THEORY— explains the moon’s existence by revealing to us that the moon formed somewhere else in the solar system and then passed by earth.
 ACCRETION THEORY— The growth of a massive object by gravitationally attracting more matter, typically gaseous matter in an accretion disk.
PLANETARY COLLISION THEORY— when the two planetary collide together; it is called “Giant Impact Hypothesis” or “Big Splash”.
STELLAR COLLISION THEORY— The coming together of two stars, which through the force of gravity merge into one larger unit.
 GAS CLOUD THEORY— states that the solar system was formed when a cloud of gas and dust in space was disturbed, maybe by the explosion of a nearby star (called supernova).
Earth's shape is classified as an oblate spheroid or ellipsoid instead of a true sphere.
Earth is the fifth-largest planet in the solar system. Its diameter is about 8,000 miles. And Earth is the third-closest planet to the sun. Its average distance from the sun is about 93 million miles.
According to the dust cloud theory, the earth and other planets were formed within the large rotating disk of gas and dust which produced the sun at its center.
PLANETS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM
The Capture Theory
- The moon was formed somewhere else,and was later captured by the gravitational field of the Earth.
The Co-Formation Theory
- explains the origin of the moon as an object which formed out of the nebula at the same time and roughly the same place as the Earth.
The Colliding Planetesimals Theory
- The interaction of Earth-orbiting and Sun-orbiting planetesimals early in the history of the Solar System led to their breakup.
The Giant Impact Theory
- was created out of the debris left over from a collision between the young Earth and a Mars-sized body.
Uranus
The seventh planet in the Solar System. Although it was visible to the naked eye, it was long mistaken as a star. The first planet discover by the scientists. British astronomer William Herschel discover Uranus on March 13, 1781. Uranus is blue green color. Uranus is tilted so far. It’s mostly hydrogen-helium atmosphere. Uranus has 27 known moons. It takes 84 Earth years, before the sun shines directly over each pole. Uranus possesses two sets of rings. NASA’s Voyager 2, first as only spacecraft to visit Uranus.
Neptune
 The eighth planet in the Solar System. Neptune was discovered on September 23, 1846. First planet its existence predicted by mathematical calculations before seen by telescope. Neptune reveals a blue planet. Its atmosphere and is roughly 17 times Earth mass. Neptune’s wind can reach up to 1,500 miles per hour the fastest detected yet in the Solar System. Neptune has 13 known moons. Neptune goes around the sun once roughly every 165 Earth years.
Pluto
Is the only dwarf planet. The largest known member of the Kuiper Belt. Pluto was reclassified as a dwarf planet in 2006. American astronomer Pervical Loweell first caught hints of Pluto’s existence in 1905. He predicted its location in 1915, but died without finding it. Discover came 1930 from Clyde Tombaugh. Pluto estimated diameter is 1/5 that of Earth. Pluto appears reddish, yellowish, and grayish. Pluto has 5 known moons. New Horizon mission will be the first probe to study Pluto, its moons and other worlds.
Mercury
Smallest and closes planet to the sun.
Rocky body like earth
It moves around its orbit in about 88 earth days
Named after the roman deity Mercury the messenger of Gods
Mercury is tidally coupled to the sun but in a more complex way than the moon is coupled to earth.

Surface Structure
Similar appearance to the moon
The temperature on mercury is extreme
Night are cold in mercury
It is heavily battered, with craters of all sizes including large basins

Mercury is marked by great curved cliffs called lobate scraps

Largest basin on mercury is called caloris basin, it is named after the latin word “heat” in recognition to its location at one of the two poles that face the sun after perihelion.
Caloris Basin is filled with lava flows
Caloris Basin
Also called as Caloris Plantia
Large impact crater discovered
By mariner 10

Plains Of Mercury
Mercury’s surface is old, cratered terrain.
Greater areas called intercrater plain that are heavily scattered
Smaller regions called smooth plains
Ancient History
Assyrian designated mercury in Mul-apin tablet that it is the jumping planet
Greeks hesoid call it the gleaming planet, They call it Apollo when visible on the morning start and hermes in the evening
Romans called it Mercury, the messenger or Gods
Venus
Second planet in solar system.
Venus is a twin of Earth.
No natural satellite
Has the densest atmosphere
Covered by smooth and volcanic plains
Venus is perpetually hidden by thick clouds
Venus rotates very slow, once in 243 Earth days, in the retrograde.
It is named after the roman goddess of love and beauty venus
Atmosphere in Venus
The composition, temperature, and density of Venus’s atmosphere makes the planet’s surface entirely inhospitable.
In fact, the thick clouds that hide the surface are composed of sulfuric acid droplets and microscopic sulfur crystals
Clouds are highly stable.
Clouds are capable of producing lightning

The upper atmosphere is cool, and the lower atmosphere is quite hot.

Surface of Venus
Venus is perpetually hidden by clouds, is not enough to melt lead and suffers under crusting atmospheric pressure
Venus consists of low rolling plains and highland regions.

The craters are uniformly scattered over the surface and look sharp and fresh.
Cratered highlands
Lava flows seem to have covered the entire surface of venus

Coronae
Sometime accompanied by circular outpourings of viscous lava called pancake domes and pushed up by molten rock below the surface.
Cause by rising currents of molten magma below the crush that create an uplifted dome.

Ishtar Terra
Consists of high volcanic plateau called lakshmi Platnum

Ancient History
It is known as the morning star
Greeks thought of two as separate stars, phosphorus and hesperus until the time of Pythagoras
Roman designated it in morning as Lucifer and in evening as Vespek

Earth
Also known as world, Terra, or Gaia
It is a terrestrial planet, meaning that is a rocky body.
Its shape is oblate spheriod
It is tilted for 23.4 degrees
Rotates on its own axis for about 23 hrs and 56 mins and 4 secs
Revolves for about 365.5 days
It is composed of 70% water
Has its own natural satellite called Moon

Geological Layers of the Earth
 Crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet or natural satellite, which is chemically distinct from the underlying mantle.
Mantle is a part of a terrestrial planet or other rocky body large enough to have differentiation by density.
Core
Outer core – composed of nickel and iron
Inner core – innermost part of the earth

Magnetic Field
Is a direct result of its rapid rotation and its molten metallic core
Magnetic field dominates space around Earth by deflecting the solar wind and trapping high-energy particles in radiation belts.
Powerful currents flow down along the magnetic field lines near the poles and excite gas atoms to emit photons, creating auroras.
Van Allen belts of radiation are produence when high-energy particles from the solar wind leak into the magnetosphere and become trapped within Earth’s magnetic field.
Moon
From the latin word “Luna”
Planet-like satellite of the Earth
Largest moon in the solar system
the gravitational attraction between earth and moon causes tides
Mars
The Red Planet
Basic Facts:
4th Planet from the sun
named after the roman god of war
has a rotational period of 24hrs and 37 minutes
has a rotational period of 24hrs and 37 minutes
- Its atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide
WHY IS IT CALLED THE RED PLANET?
Mars is covered with thick layer of oxidized iron dust and rocks of the same color.
Mars' Atmosphere
95.3% Carbon dioxide
2.7% Nitrogen
0.13% Oxygen
0.03% Water Vapor
Mars Surface and Features
Olympus Mons
A large shield Volcano on the planet Mars. It is also the largest volcano in the solar system.
Valles Marineris
Largest Canyon in the solar system
The moons of Mars
Mars has two tiny moons named “Deimos” (Panic) & “Phobos” (Fear)
The moons are irregular and very small in size
The moons are probably asteroids captured by Mars

PHOBOS
Deimos
JUPITER
The Gas Giant
Largest planet in the solar system
two and a half times more massive than all the other planets in the solar system combined. It is made primarily of gases and is therefore known as a “gas giant”.
Basic Facts:
- Jupiter has the shortest day of all the planets: 9 hours and 55 minutes
The Great Red Spot
The Great Red Spot is a huge storm on Jupiter:
It has raged for at least 350 years. It is so large that three Earths could fit inside it.

Moons of Jupiter
Ganymeade
Io
Callisto
Europa
Jupiter has a thin ring system:
Its rings are composed mainly of dust particles ejected from some of Jupiter’s smaller worlds during impacts from incoming comets and asteroids.
SATURN
- Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the most distant that can be seen with the naked eye. It is best known for its fabulous ring system that was discovered in 1610 by the astronomer Galileo Galilei.
- Saturn orbits the Sun once every 29.4 Earth years
-Saturn’s upper atmosphere is divided into bands of clouds:
The top layers are mostly ammonia ice. Below them, the clouds are largely water ice. Below are layers of cold hydrogen and sulfur ice mixtures.

Saturn has the most extensive rings in the solar system
The Saturnian rings are made mostly of chunks of ice and small amounts of carbonaceous dust. The rings stretch out more than 120,700 km from the planet, but are are amazingly thin: only about 20 meters thick.
Saturn has 150 moons and smaller moonlets:
All are frozen worlds. The largest moons are Titan and Rhea.
Titan
- Titan is a moon with complex and dense nitrogen-rich atmosphere:
It is composed mostly of water ice and rock. Its frozen surface has lakes of liquid methane and landscapes covered with frozen nitrogen. Planetary scientists consider Titan to be a possible harbour for life, but not Earth-like life.

Rhea
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