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The pH Scale

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Michelle Leppla

on 9 September 2013

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Transcript of The pH Scale

Chapter 2: pH Scale & Inorganic and Organic Compounds
Four Types of Biological molecules
-Carbohydrates
-Proteins
-Nucleic acids
-DNA
-RNA
-Lipids
Assessment
Let's Review!
1. What's the difference between an acid and a base?
2. Name 2 household items that are acids.
3. Is this chemical reaction balanced?

Carbohydrates
-Carbohydrates are organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.
Lipid
-Lipids are are non polar molecules that are not soluble in water.
Protiens
-Proteins are chains of amino acids
Nucleic Acids
-Nucleic acids are long chains of smaller molecules called nucleotides.
-There are two kinds of nucleic acids DNA and RNA
-DNA is a nucleic acid that carries the genetic information in the cell and is capable of self-replication of RNA.
-RNA contains all living cells and many viruses, consisting of a long, usually single-stranded chain of alternating phosphate and ribosome units with the bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil bonded to the ribose.lication and synthesis of RNA.
-DNA is double stranded whereas RNA has one strand.
Differences
-These four types of biological molecules have many differences.Carbohydrates provide energy for the cells. Lipids provide energy and serve an important part in the structure and functioning of cell membranes. Proteins have many different functions. Proteins can can be enzymes, to promote chemical reactions. Also proteins help structure your ligaments, tendons, bones, hair, and muscles and defend against infection. The nucleic acids DNA and RNA prode cells with genetic coding that tells one who they are.
Cells
-A cell is the basic unit of life.
-All living things are made of cells.
- Cells can die and reproduce
-Cells preform in the organism all the vital functions

- The number indicating the strength of acids and bases on a scale of 0 to 14, where 7 is neutral.
- A value below 7 is an acid, and a value above 7 is a base.
The pH Scale
- A substance that contributes hydrogen ions to a solution
- 2 examples are:
- Nitric acid (HNO3)
- Sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
Acids
- A substance that contributes hydroxide ions to a solution.
- 2 examples are:
- Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
- Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2)
Bases
1. Synthesis
2. Decomposition
3. Single-Replacement
4. Double-Replacement
- A reaction that occurs when atoms separate from molecules or recombine with other molecules.
- Do you remember the 4 types of chemical reactions?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Chemical Reaction
- Matter cannot be created of destroyed; it can only change form.
Law of Conservation Of Matter
Inorganic and Organic Compounds
- Inorganic compounds either:
a) do not contain the element carbon
or
b) do contain carbon, but only carbon bound to elements other than hydrogen
- Examples:
- Ammonia (NH3)
- Sodium Chloride (NaCl)
- Water (H2O)
- Organic Compounds are compounds that have carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds.
-Examples:
- Glucose (C6H12O6)
- Natural Gas (CH4)
- They are the basis of the biological molecules that are important to life.
4. ________ compounds are the basis of the biological molecules that are important to life.
5. The 4 types of biological molecules are...
True or False:
6. Rna contains 2 strands.
7. Cells can die and reproduce.
8. There are three types of nucleic acid.
9. Inorganic Compounds do not contain carbon at all.
10. A pH of 7 is considered neutral.
Answers
1. An acid contributes hydrogen ions while a base contributes hydroxide ions. An acid has a pH of <7, and a base has a pH of >7.
2. Lemon/ Vinegar/ Milk/ Apple/ Tomato
3. No
4. Organic
5. Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic Acids, and Lipids
6. False
7. True
8. False
9. False
10. True
Objective
SWBAT:
1. List and describe the 4 types of biological molecules.

2. Explain how they differ from one another
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