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Sister Callista Roy's Adaptation Model

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on 26 July 2014

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Transcript of Sister Callista Roy's Adaptation Model

Sister Callista Roy's
Adaptation Model

Model Concepts
Applying to Practice
Person
People are seen as holistic adaptive systems
They are able to cope and maintain adaptation
In constant interaction with a changing environment
People can be viewed as individuals, groups, organizations, or communities
Environment
All conditions, circumstances and influences that affect the development and behavior of humans as adaptive systems.
Health
Health is a process
Metaparadigm
Nursing
Enhances the interaction of the person with the environment to facilitate adaptation
Coping Mechanisms
Describe the control processes of the person as an adaptive system.
Adaptation Process
Application of Model
Roy's model demonstrates how individuals respond to their internal and external stimuli. Adaptive responses are assessed through the four modes: physiological, self-concept, role function, and interdependence. Through the application of regulator and cognator coping mechanisms, the person exhibits either adaptive or ineffective responses. Nursing interventions and goals are aimed at increasing the person's adaptation level to enhance environmental interactions with adaptive responses which will ultimately promote health.
by Crystal Cooper RN
Sister Callista Roy was born in Los Angeles, California on October 14, 1939. She is the oldest daughter of seven boys and seven girls. Her mother was a vocational nurse, and at age 14 Roy began working at a general hospital, eventually working her way up to nurse's aide.
She entered the Sisters of Saint Joseph of Carondelet after high school. She attained her bachelors of arts in nursing from Mount St. Mary's College in Los Angeles in 1963. She then attended UCLA for her master's degrees in nursing and sociology, then a PhD in sociology in 1974.
BIOGRAPHY
She has received numerous awards and honorary doctorates from various colleges over the years. She was honored as a Living Legend by the American Academy of Nursing and the Massachusetts Association of Registered Nurses, and is considered one of nursing's greatest living thinkers.
She has held faculty and administration positions at Mount St. Mary's College and the University of Portland, and was Dean of Nursing at Boston College. Today, Sister Callista Roy, is a resident nurse theorist at Boston College's School of Nursing.
Roy's Adaptation Model has been in use for over 40 years, and has continued to provide a framework for theory, practice, and research in nursing.
Adaptive Modes
It is a state of being
Becoming a whole to achieve maximum potential
Adaptive processes promote integrity
Seen as an outcome of adaptation
A change in environment causes adaptive responses to be utilized
The levels of adaptive responses: integrated, compensatory, and compromised
Levels are constantly changing based on ability to respond
1. Physiological - oxygen, elimination, rest, activity, and nutrition
2. Self-Concept - set of feelings and beliefs that underlie a persons perception of themselves
3. Role Function - roles one occupies in society and their behavior towards others
4. Interdependence - maintaining balance between independence and dependence in relationships
Uses the four adaptive modes to promote adaption
Assess factors and relationships that influence adaptive abilities
The science and practice that promotes adaptive abilities
Some coping mechanisms are inherited or genetic and others are learned
Three kinds of stimuli: focal, contextual, and residual
The response (outcome) is a function of the stimuli and the adaptation level
Stimuli come from both internal and external sources
Two coping subsystems
Cognator - involves coping capabilities using perception, learning, judgement, and emotion
Regulator - automatic inherent coping through body systems
They represent the condition of the life processes an individual is experiencing
Views the nursing process as a dynamic continuum with the patients progress paramount to the process
Fosters a true caring relationship conducive to a healing environment
REFERENCES
Boston College. (2013).
The Roy Adaptation Model.
Retrieved from http://www.bc.edu/content/bc/schools/son/faculty/featured/theorist/Roy_Adaptation_Model.html
Current Nursing. (2013).
Roy's Adaptation Model.
Retrieved from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Roy_adaptation_model.html
Parker, M. E., & Smith, M. C. (2010).
Nursing theories & nursing practice
(3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company.
Ultimately decrease ineffective responses to stimuli
Provides guidance that can enhance quality of life for the person and interactions with the environment
Nursing Process and the Adaptation Model
Assess behavior in relation to the four adaptive modes
Assess stimuli and categorize
Diagnose person's adaptive state
Set goals to promote adaptation
Implement interventions
Evaluate and reevaluate goals during process
Focal - most immediately affecting the system
Contextual - all other stimulus present in the situation
Residual -stressors whose influence on the person is unclear
The four modes allow for consideration on multiple levels of the human adaptive system
Nurse manipulates the environment or the stimuli to produce adaptive behaviors, not the patient
Utilizes a holistic approach to patient care and allows for a more patient-oriented approach that uses the nurse as the change agent (helper)
Conclusion
Ordin, Y. S., Karayurt, Ö., & Wellard, S. (2013). Investigation of adaptation after liver transplantation using Roy's Adaptation Model.
Nursing & Health Sciences
, 15(1), 31-38. doi:10.1111/j.1442-2018.2012.00715.x
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