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SO 113 Poverty Presentation

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Justin Roy

on 18 April 2014

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Transcript of SO 113 Poverty Presentation

POVERTY
Measurement and Extent of Poverty
Mollie Orshanky (1963)
Poverty Line
Historical Poverty Tables
1964: 19.0% of U.S. population
(36.4 million Americans)
2010: 15.1% of U.S. population
(46.2 million Americans)
Supplemental Poverty Measure
Geographic
Differences
Government
Aid
Tax Credits
Taxes Paid
Food
Family
Expenses
2010: 16.0% of U.S. population
(49.1 million Americans)
Episodic Poverty
Being poor for at least 2 consecutive months in some time period
2004- 2007: 33.3% of U.S. population*
(95.0 million Americans)
* Only 2.2% were poor all 3 years
Poverty Line = (minimal diet) x 3
Outdated
Twice Poverty
2010: Nonfarm Family of Four
Poverty Line = $22,213
Budget calculated including additional costs plus cost of food = Twice the poverty line
2010: Nonfarm Family of Four
Twice Poverty Line = $44,426
Explanation of Poverty
Reducing Poverty
Strategies
Take A Lesson from Norway
Retire at 65 with 80% of your income for the rest of your life
Free healthcare
Free education K-college
Raising the minimum wage and redesign the earned income tax credit
Breaking the cycle— two-generation strategies for working with disconnected young parents and their children
Emergency saving for low-income consumers
Emergency saving for low-income consumers
working 40 hours a week as a single mother should not be equal to staying home
Benefits for work such as childcare and living expenses
Subsidies for employers to hire poor people, also give Americans incentive to keep business in America.

Create work programs to help beautify communities and work on projects throughout U.S. in return offer scholarships for further education.

Move away from racial stereotypes
Strategies for Individuals
Avoid counterproductive and spending behaviors/Learn about money management
Secure your future
Education
Investments
Job Benefits
Increase your income-job advancement, second job, alternatives to occupational income
Take advantage of government welfare programs and other programs to help low income
We could put aside one month a year to educate the population about poverty. Advertise the programs people are not using. Flood the television and radio with ways to help the poor. They would maybe feel not so alone if they saw a program that could help them on TV.

Recommendation From Textbooks
1. Adopt National "Full
Employment

2. Increase Federal Aid

3. Establish Well-Funded
Early Childhood
Intervention Programs

4. Provide Enough Income

5. Increase Number of
Affordable Housing
6. Improve The Schools

7. Provide Nutrition and
Health Services

8. Establish Universal
Health Insurance

9. Increase Pell Grants
Social Mobility
Move Within a Society’s Stratification System

Ascribed Status
Achieved Status
Status the individual acquires during his or her lifetime as result of exercise of knowledge, ability, skill, and/or perseverance


Status at Birth


What Does It Mean To Be Poor?

Absolute Poverty
Relative Poverty
versus
a lack of basic necessities, such as food, shelter and income.
Situation of falling behind the average income or lifestyle enjoyed by rest of society.

Functionalist Perspective
Conflict Perspective
Interactionist Perspective
Social class affects how people interact in everyday life and how they view certain aspects of the social world.
Marx viewed society as involving constant struggle between social classes over scarce resources.
Stratification and poverty results from lack of opportunity and discrimination against the poor, people of color, and women.
The affluent are merely using the resources available to protect their own position.
Once people become successful they tend to pass on their success to their children and this makes it more difficult for people on the bottom to move up.
Monetary Capital, Social Capital, Cultural Capital

Functionalists assume that not everyone in society can and should be equal.
Inequality is necessary for the social order.
Based on the value of one’s work or talent, society rewards individuals at the top of the social structure with more wealth and power than those on the bottom.
Example: Some people who live in poverty develop a cultural orientation that helps them adapt to their life circumstances in a way that enables them to feel good
Some people are more important because of their function
Social institutions, especially education, sort everyone into their proper place
Who Are The Impoverished?
Statistics on Poverty Demographics are Often Times Classified Into:
Gender
Race/Ethnicity
Age
Family Structure
Place of Residence
Gender
Females (16.2%) are more likely to live in poverty than males (14%).
Males have better opportunity at higher paying entry-level, non-degree jobs than females.
Females generally assume custody of children after a break-up.
What Reason Could Result In This?
Age
Race/Ethnicity
Family Structure
Place of Residence
When children are raised in poverty, they are more likely to stay in poverty. Causes of this may be because of less opportunities, labeling or differential association theories.
Why do you think senior citizens have such a high rate of poverty?
Whites account for 42.4% of the poverty, while African Americans only make up 23.1%.
Depending on how you look at it, African Americans could have higher poverty rates than Whites.
(Be aware of statistics, they can be misleading)
No
Sheer numbers?
Percentage of a demographic group?
Yes
Single parent homes are more likely to be in poverty. 31% of which are headed by females while only 16% are headed by males.

This could go back to higher paying entry-level jobs for males or because generally, females take custody of the children unless the male has a significant financial advantage
Do you think the margin in gender income is narrowing or widening for entry-level jobs?
The South is the most poverty struck region of the United States. The Northeast has the lowest poverty rate.

This can be because the North is more urbanized and has more jobs available
The text book states a theory of illness rates in the South compared to the North
What do you think about the cost of living in the South compared to the North?
African Americans only make up 12.6% of the U.S. population
Whites make up around 63% of the U.S. population
Compare your predictions that you wrote down at the beginning of class to what you learned today.
Reflect with your team about what you have found.
Consequences of Poverty
Family Problems
The poor have greater risk of family problems such as domestic violence, divorce, and sexual behavior such as teen pregnancies.
Poor children are more likely to:
Become poor adults
Deal with unemployment
Be influenced in learning
Become more antisocial
Criminal behavior
Health, Illness, Medical Care
Around 150,000 deaths annually due to poverty
Mental and physical illnesses usually caused by poverty
Stress
Weakened Immune System
Psychopathology
Physical Abuse
Drug/Alcohol Abuse
No Medications
Early adult and infant mortality because of...
Lack of Medical Care
Lack of Nutrition
Education
Children who suffer from poverty generally...
Tend to repeat their parents poverty cycle
Less likely to graduate
Attend poor school districts
Not able to receive quality education
Housing
Homelessness
Most people in poverty:
Lack job opportunities in poor communities
Spend half their income on rent
It’s estimated that 1.6 million including 300,000 children are homeless for part of the year.

Crime and Victimization
People in Poverty:
Usually responsible for the bulk of our street crime (homicide, robbery, prostitution, burglary, etc.)
More likely to be involved in gangs
It’s estimated that 2 million convicts come from poverty
Latent Consequences
Poverty provides work for professions such as penology, sociology, social work, and public health
Every society has dirty work, and poor people tend to do those jobs, such as infantry, and factory jobs
Often buy off brand and undesirable items such as day old bread and second hand vehicle market
Write down what you believe are the highest and lowest outcomes of income using the described categories.
(Example: male, 43, Native American, etc.)

Examples: construction, laborer, etc.
SO 113 Section 1
Team 2
Justin Roy
Rene Swanson
Cody Cass
Kendal Sanderson
Jeff Perelmutter
Table of
Contents
Measurement and Extent of Poverty
Who Is Impoverished?
Explanation of Poverty
Consequences of Poverty
Reducing Poverty
Editor: Justin Roy
Editor: Cody Cass
Editor: Rene Swanson
Editor: Jeff Perelmutter
Editor: Kendal Sanderson
Chief Editor: Justin Roy
Full transcript