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Transcript of Anthropology
1. Linguistic Anthropology
-The study of language
-How language influences social life
-Language, culture, and society
-The study of past cultures through material evidence
-Applies to the study of pre-historic, historic, and in some cases modern societies
3. Biological Anthropology
-The study of human origins, evolution, and diversity
-Focused on physical development of humanity
4. Cultural Anthropology
-Social Anthropology in the UK
-The study of cultural behavior
-The holistic, relativistic study of humanity, past and present
Cultural Resource Management
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The study of humanity past and present, from its evolutionary origins to its current level of worldwide diversity
Physical and Biological Careers
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Ethnography - intensive, holistic study of groups based on observation, interview, participation and analysis
Ethnocentrism- judging others solely by the values and standards of one's own culture
Points of view have no absolute truth, only relative, subjective meaning according to differences in perception or opinion.
Cultural Relativism - an anthropological approach centered around analyzing a culture in their own terms, not the belief system of the anthropologist.
Ethical Relativism - all rights or wrongs are relative to culture and that moral judgements can not and should not be made
Worldview - a culture-based ethnocentric view of other people
Developing theories to explain cultural phenomena based on cultural comparison
Chapter 2: The Nature of Culture
What Is Culture?
Edward Tyler, 1871 - "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society"
Contemporary definitions -
a) a set of beliefs and practices abstracted from people's actual lived experiences
b) a particular identifiable group of people who share or participate in social life
Early anthropology was centered around the study of indigenous societies - peoples who were once independent but have become minorities of a larger, frequently colonial, state (Africa, North and South America).
As a result of globalization, these small homogenous societies that anthropologist sued to study are almost non-existent
Applied Anthropology- The fifth sub-field?
That which enables people to function and contribute to society
-Ideas, attitudes, beliefs values
-What food to eat, how to build shelter, what to wear, etc
Traditional/local/indigenous knowledge - knowledge systems embedded in the cultural traditions of local communities
Cultural Core - tools and practices of the people required for survival in society (subsistence, shelter, security, etc.)
Humans are social creatures, our attitudes, behaviors and ideas are formulated by our interactions with others. Together we form societies - groups of people who live in acknowledged territories who may interact with one another, in the process sharing cultural practices and values.
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Cultural Models - assumptions that are shared by members of society which allow the group to function
Cultural Norms - beliefs about how members should behave in a given context that help govern society.
Enculturation - how one learns the appropriate behaviors of society through informal and formal instruction.
Subcultures - a group of people in society who think of themselves, and are thought of by others, as being different in some significant way.
Taboo - prohibition of an action based on the belief that such behavior is too extraordinary or abominable for individuals to undertake
Counterculture - a type of subculture where members subscribe to an alternative cultural model
Characteristics of Culture
Cultural Integration - the people of one culture acquire the ideas or beliefs of another culture; responsible for many foods, technological advancements, and medicines
Culture Wars - internal disagreements about cultural models
Culture Contact - direct transmission of ideas through trade or conquest
Syncretism- merging of different cultural ideas or items to form a new cultural product
Assimilation - the means by which a minority group begins to resemble or merge into the dominant group
Acculturation - the process of cultural change by minority groups in a new cultural sphere, all the while maintaining beliefs of their original culture *
Cultural Pluralism - minority behavior is accepted by the wider culture provided they are consistent with the laws and values of the wider society *
Modernization - complex social change resulting from internal and external pressures associated with global society
Symbol - a word, image, or object that stands for cultural ideas or sentiments
Naturalized concepts - Ideas and behaviors so deeply embedded in a culture that they are regarded as universally normal or natural.
Social Darwinism - interaction between groups in society that leads to social progress as superior groups out-compete inferior ones
Cultural Evolution - belief of early anthropologist that cultures evolve through various stages from simple to complex
Culture History - social changes occurring in succession from the past to present and even into the future pertaining to a culture
Ethnogenesis - the development and defining of new cultural identities
Diffusion - spread of cultural practices and ideas from one society to another through direct and indirect culture contact
Invention/Innovation - new technologies based on or built upon previous inventions or skills
Reactive Adaptation - coping response of captive, conquered, or oppressed peoples to loss and deprivation
Revitalization Movement - nonviolent reactive adaptation in which people try to restore their traditional way or life.
Revolution - process by which people try to change their culture or overturn the social order and replace it with a new society
The process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture through a large area; including the development of an increasingly integrated global economy marked especially by free trade, free flow of capital, and the tapping of cheaper foreign labor markets