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Management Presentation

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wing ting chung

on 23 April 2015

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Transcript of Management Presentation

Leadership and Loyalty
Authoritarian
Management Presentation
Leadership

Paternalistic
Gender
Definitions of Authoritarian Leadership Style
Cambridge Dictionary:
- Requires people totally obey
Coercive use of power

Directiveness

Group members
feelings of "fear,
insecurity, and
frustration

Components of
Autocratic
Effects to Subordinates with Autocratic Leadership


Using unilateralism to achieve a singular objective


- Passive resistance

- Frustrated

- Focus on their own interests and their investment in group-oriented activities will be reduced
Strong Disregard for the Interests and Perspective of Their Subordinates

- Negatively related to followers’ perceptions of leaders’ selflessness

- Self-focused behaviors of a leader reduce his or her influence on followers
Autocratic Leaders and Loyalty
-ve loyalty towards Supervisor
Real World Cases

1.Steve Jobs
- No delegation of control

- Creates a vision and implements policies, employees follows them

2. Methods of Control: Authoritarianism in North Korea

- Common goal of all authoritarian regime: preserve their grip on power

- Tools to stay in power: use of force and co-optation

What do you think about ?
Represent Teams
Any Insights ?
How about leader?
Interaction Time

Work in 4 groups
Watch 4 videos
Determine which leadership style is illustrated by which video
Rate each leader the extent you will be loyal to (1-10)

Video 1

Video 2

Video 3
Video 4

Debriefing
Leader 4
Choose & Vote!!
Leader 3
Leader 1
Leader 2
Meet Needs
Interaction Time
Meet Goal
Conclusions
Limitations and Suggestions
References
Cheung Hei Ching Candy
Chung Wing Ting, Ruby
Lui Yin Yi
Mok Wing Sum
Ngan Ka Chun Alan
Yuen Wing Hong

Meet Goal
Conclusion
Represent Teams
Meet Needs
Paternalistic leadership Style
4.12
3.92
4.08
3.95
3.79
3.43
1: Not
5: Very
Highly skilled, experienced, and educated staff
Trustworthy and responsible staff
Staff who has pride in their work
Outside experts

It Is Effective When....
Positive Relationship between Paternalistic Leadership Style and Loyalty
Participation Theory of Leadership
Lewin, Lippitt & White (1939)
AUTHORITARIAN

1. Worked more than other groups

2. When the leader left the room, the productivity dropped
in the autocratic group

3. Showed dissatisfaction and hostility toward the leader and members of the group

Participation theory of leadership
- Distinguishes between leadership style and leader’s influence over the group

- Groups of five boys were led by an adult who adopted different leadership styles
Effective when:
The Project is going to reach deadline

Lead by a supervisor with high ability

Increase productivity and efficiency

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paternalistic leadership style has a central role in business process compliance of labor relations;
Labor Relations compliance cost constraints, only to break through innovation in order

No universal style of leadership for being the most effective in all situations
4 different types of leadership styles and gender difference of leaders
Contingency approach model
Suggestions to raise loyalty of employees
Loyalty
Definition of loyalty?


Leadership

Democratic Leadership Styles

The Relationship between Democratic Leadership and Loyalty
Democratic Leadership
Employee Engagement
Loyalty
Leadership Style Affects Employee Engagement that is More Loyal to their Organization

• Statement from McBain (2007) and Lockwood (2007)

• Social Exchange Theory
Discussions on case study
democratic leadership in nursing
industry
How do different leadership styles and gender of leaders relate to the loyalty of employees?
Identification
Imitation
Gratefulness
Requital
Reverence
Obedience
Relationship between Paternalistic Leadership Style and Loyalty
Q & A
Democratic
1. Different Leadership Styles like charismatic and transformational leadership can be analyzed

2. Difference in national and organizational cultures can be analyzed




Casal, T. (2002). Authoritarian leadership style and intrinsic motivation. Union, NJ: Kean University.

Chaudhry, A., & Javed, H. (2012). Impact of Transactional and Laissez Faire Leadership Style on Motivation. <i>3</i>(7), 258-264. Retrieved February 1, 2015, from http://ijbssnet.com/journals/Vol_3_No_7_April_2012/28.pdf

Cuadrado, I., Navas, M., Molero, F., Ferrer, E., & Morales, J. F. (2012). Gender Differences in Leadership Styles as a Function of Leader and Subordinates' Sex and Type of Organization. Journal Of Applied Social Psychology, 42(12), 3083-3113.

C. W., V., & Martin S., B. (2014). LAISSEZ-FAIRE LEADERSHIP: DOING NOTHING AND ITS DESTRUCTIVE EFFECT, 14(1).

Eugene M, F. (1976). GROUP STRESS, AUTHORITARIAN STYLE OF CONTROL, AND USE OF POWER. Journal of Applied Psychology, 61(3), 313-313.


Ling, H. C., Chang, J. C., Hsieh, S. Y., Lee, C. S., & Liao, M. Y. (2011). Leadership behavior and subordinate effectiveness of Chinese hospitality: Mediating process of loyalty. African Journal of Business Management, 5(19), 9340-9347.





Pellegrini, E. K., & Scandura, T. A. (2008). Paternalistic leadership: A review and agenda for future research. Journal of Management, 34(3), 566-593.





Lockwood, RN 2007, Leveraging employee engagement for competitive advantage. Society for Human Resource Management, Alexandria, VA.
Nursing Leadership Styles (Part II): Democratic Leaders. (2012, July 4). Retrieved February 23, 2015, from http://allnurses.com/nurse-management/nursing-leadership-styles-752761.html?PageSpeed=noscript
How do Different Leadership Styles
Affect Loyalty of Supervisors?
Scientific papers:
- Leading by command (Bowditch i & Buono, 1997)

- Information flows from top to bottom - Made all the decisions

-Strong self-esteem


Definition of leadership?

3.08
2.72
Authoritarian
Democratic
3.70
4.06
2.61
2.92
LAissez faire
paternalism
3.74
3.55
5 : Always
1 : NEVER
5 : Always
1 : NEVER
Characteristics
Examples
- Bill Gates
(Co- founder of
Microsoft)


Characteristics
1)Strong discipline
2)Authority with
fatherly
benevolence

Situations
1)Workers are
experienced
and capable
2)Workers will be
affected by the
decision
3)Workers will take
up additional job
responsibilities
Examples
Designers
Scientists
Works require innovation and individuality
Laissez-faire Leadership Style
Steve Jobs
Ronald Regan
1)Collectivistic cultures
2)High-power distance
cultures
Authority is shared
Freedom
Low productivity
Poorer quality of work
PROS AND CONS
Applicable
jobs
Real life
example
Non-Western
Countries, e.g. Japan,
China and India
Relationship between laissez-faire and loyalty
Importance of this topic
Leadership is needed everywhere
More and more female leaders
Loyalty of employees is important to superiors
Situations
-Employees are willing
to share their ideas

-Leaders are respect
to the ideas
It Is Effective When...
1)The decision cannot be carried out without support from workers

2) Other workers possess more information needed for decision-making than the managers

3)Workers are motivated
Studies by (Alkhashali, 2003) and (Ajami, 1998)
Organizational loyalty is the result of:
Positively affects employees' loyalty
Laissez-faire (hands-off style)

Leaders let the group make decisions and complete the work in whether way it saw fit (Behavioural Theory)


Paternalistic Leadership

Employees’ welfare
Leader’s care and protection
Loyalty
Trust
Cooperation
Commitment
Democratic Leadership style
Organizational Loyalty
collect feedback
involve in decision making
feel empowered
increase sense of belonging
loyalty!!!!!
A Negative Relationship between
Laissez-faire and Loyalty
Less coherent work patterns and exertion of less energy
Low motivational level
-ve relationship with follower satisfaction

Leadership
Listen to all commands from leader = Loyalty????
Lewin, Lippitt & White (1939)
(Lewin, Leppitt & White, 1938)

(De Cremer et al. 2004)
employee :
Extract from Table:
Descriptive Statistics of Leaders' Self-Evaluations and Evaluation by Subordinates of the Effectiveness and "Extra Effort"
5 : very Effective
1 : not effective
Extract from Table:
Descriptive Statistics of Leaders' Self-Evaluation of the Leadership Styles
Extract from Table:
Descriptive Statistics of Leaders' Self-Evaluation of the Leadership Styles
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0ByBek1iCCaYpNzVGMEJWa1BxaGs/view?usp=sharing
3)Punishment
-Distribution of
responsibility
-Empowering
group mates
-Aiding group
decision-making
process

-Time-consuming
-Timid workers
It Is Effective When....

-Keep the communication open

-Focus on the discussion

-Be ready to commit
Modern and Global View
Full transcript