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Second Language Learning and Teaching

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daniel silvestri

on 17 September 2012

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Transcript of Second Language Learning and Teaching

Second Language Learning and Teaching What is Language?

In the beginning god created language. God said, 'Let there be nouns, adverbs, adjectives, etc. And god blessed them, and said unto them, 'Be fruitful and multiply and replenish the earth.' And god saw that it was good. "the systematic, conventional use of sounds, signs, or written symbols in a human society for communication and self-expression"- David Crystal JULIET:
'Tis but thy name that is my enemy;
Thou art thyself, though not a Montague.
What's Montague? it is nor hand, nor foot,
Nor arm, nor face, nor any other part
Belonging to a man. O, be some other name!
What's in a name? that which we call a rose
By any other name would smell as sweet;
So Romeo would, were he not Romeo call'd,
Retain that dear perfection which he owes
Without that title. Romeo, doff thy name,
And for that name which is no part of thee
Take all myself. is the study of the sound systems of languages Phonology is the study of the structure of words

Morphology deals with morphemes

Morphemes are the minimal units of linguistic form and meaning Morphology For instance, dog is a free morpheme
because it can stand as a word by itself -s- is a bound morpheme,
because it cannot stand on its own and must be bound to a free morpheme.
Such as, dog, creating dogs, thus indicating that there is more than one dog. Syntax is the study of rules governing the way words are combined to form sentences and the rules governing the arrangement of sentences in sequences.

Syntax is about the relationship between words. Semantics is the study of the meaning of words, phrases, and sentences. Pragmatics
what's beneath the surface?

Pragmatics is the study of language in use.

In other words, the "invisible" meaning.

Context, context, context It also includes homophones, homonyms, etc.
i.e. 'How much can a bare bear bear? Of the SLA theories discussed in this chapter, which on do you agree most with?

Should the United States remain a monolinguistic society or should we institute bilingualism? Explain.

What are some of the barriers that prevent ELLs from acquiring the language and succeeding in academic pursuits? Discussion Questions Works Cited Gollnick, D. M., Chinn, P. C. (2009). Multicultural Education In A Pluralistic Society (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Lightbown, P.M., Spada, N. (2006). How Languages Are Learned (3rd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (1997). Second Language Acquisition. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Sheng, Z., Sheng Y., & Anderson, C.J. (2011). Dropping Out of School among ELL Students: Implications to Schools and Teacher Education. The Clearing House, 84, 98-103.
Brooks, K., Adams, S. R., & Morita-Mullaney, T. (2010). Creating Inclusive Learning Communities for ELL Students:Transforming School Principals’ Perspectives. Theory Into Practice, 49, 145-151. Role of first language in 2nd language acquisition Cummins (1996) maintains that we learn, “by integrating new input into our existing cognitive structure or schemata” (as cited in Gollnick & Chinn, 2009, p 216).
Research indicates that encouraging the development of the students’ native language does not negatively impact the development of academic skills in English. English Language Learners (ELLs) are the most rapidly growing student population in U.S. elementary and secondary schools.
“English proficiency directly relates to academic performance and grade retention” (Sheng, Sheng, Anderson 2010). Emerging from the Shadows The Innatist
Krashen’s 5 hypotheses Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis- Acquisition (subconscious process) the most natural way to learn a language is through natural communication. Learning (conscious process) it is the product of formal instruction.

Monitor Hypothesis- the acquired system is spontaneous. the learned system monitors. The monitor can make some contributions to accuracy but it sometimes acts as a barrier.

Natural Order Hypothesis- learner's acquire parts of a language in a particular order.

Input Hypothesis- acquisition occurs when learners receive input they can understand.

Affective Filter Hypothesis- a 'screen' influenced by emotional barriers. (CPH) Critical Period Hypothesis- this hypothesis argues that all animals, including humans, are genetically programmed to acquire certain types of knowledge at specific times in life.
Victor, in 1799, was found wandering naked in the woods of France. Never having had contact with humans, he underwent a program of socialization, but his language acquisition never developed beyond the usage of two words: ‘lait’ (milk) and ‘O Dieu!’ (Oh, God!). Innatist continued. . . Noam Chomsky hypothesized that children are born with a specific innate ability to discover for themselves the underlying rules of a language system.
This innate ability may be seen as a template, containing the principles that are universal to all human languages.
(UG) Universal Grammar The Innatist Perspective Imitation and practice are the primary processes in language development.
Positive & Negative reinforcement.
The environment is the central source of everything the child needs to learn. The Behaviorist Perspective Stem from the pioneering work of Lev Vygotsky.

Learning is a social activity.

Children's learning takes place when they interact and collaborate with adults or more skillful peers (ZPD). Cognitive/ developmental Perspective Behaviorist (monkey see, monkey do)


Innatist (genetic predisposition)


Cognitive/Developmental Perspective

Sociocultural Perspective Language Acquisition
4 major perspectives Sociocultural Perspectives Cognitive and Developmental psychologists believe there is no distinction in the brain between learning and acquisition and general theories of learning can account for language learning.
Lewis Carrol’s Alice in Wonderland, “’Then you should say what you mean,’ the March Hare went on. ‘I do,’ Alice hastily replied; ‘at least I mean what I say- that’s the same thing, you know.’ ‘Not the same thing a bit!’ said the Hatter, ‘Why, you might just as well say that “I see what I eat” is the same thing as “I eat what I see”!’ ‘You might just as well say,’ added the March Hare, ‘that “I like what I get” is the same thing as “I get what I like”! ‘You might just as well say,’ added the Dormouse, who seemed to be talking in his sleep, ‘that “I breathe when I sleep” is the same thing as “I sleep when I breathe”!’ Language
Acquisition
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