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Transcript of Healthy Performer
-the circulatory system is the main method of transporting blood around the body.
-the circulatory system uses the heart, vessels, blood, capillaries, arteries and veins to do so.
-the arteries are extremely thin and can get clogged by fatty tissues.
- it is a double functioning system and as it has two separate circuits. one that delivers oxygenated blood from the heart to the muscles and one that returns the de-oxygenated blood back to the heart.
-the capillaries are a main part of the circulatory system as they are found in the lungs and are in charge of the gas exchange from our blood.
- a blister may occur in the studio from doing vigorous work in bare feet or shoes that may rub.
- a blister is a small pocket of fluid within the upper layers of the skin, typically caused by forceful rubbing.
-a blister could occur quicker on a rough dance floor such as a church hall because the floor can be uneven and can even cause splinters from the wood.
- to treat a blister you should use a disinfectant wipe .
- you should then cover in a plaster to prevent the blister from busting,.
-a blister can be prevented by wearing properly fitted foot wear if shoes are rubbing, and if in bare feet you could use foot thongs.
-could also be prevented by soaking feet in salt water to harden the skin if you dance in bare feet regularly as blister usually occur on soft and moist skin.
-cramps are involuntary muscle contractions usually due to intensive use of a particular muscle.
-cramps can be extremely painful and can last a varied amount of time.
-cramps can occur from strenuous muscle use, they can also be caused by overuse of the muscles combined with a lack of strength, insufficient fitness levels, improper breathing and there could also be a history of cramping in your genetics.
- cramps can be treated by slowly stretching out and massaging the muscle that is cramping.
- cramps can be prevented by resting the muscles so they are not tired before starting another class, breathing properly and drinking water.
how knowledge of the skeletal and muscular systems can help a dancer in training
knowledge of both of these systems can help the dancer become more aware of how the body works and also help them to think about what muscles and bones go into each dance movement they might do for example a grand battement, the muscles you would use would be:
-tibialus anterior -hamstrings
-quadriceps -rectus abdominus
By Chloe Ewing
structure of the main bones in the human body
- the human body is made up of 206 bones.
- 15-20% of a humans body weight is part of the skeletal system.
-there are 5 different types of bones within the body: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones and sesamoid bones.
-bones have many layers and are made out of different materials such as cartilage, marrow, hard bone , periosteum, blood vessels and spongy bone.
functions of skeletal system
how knowledge of three systems can help in the training of a performer
structure of main joints in the human body
- there are 6 different types of joint in the human body all fitting into to different places in the body helping each limb to move.
the 6 joints are:
- ball and socket, this is placed in the shoulder and hip.
- saddle joint, these are placed in the hands.
- plane joint, an example of the plane joint is the spine.
- pivot joint, this is placed in the knee.
- ellipsoid joint, an ellipsoid joint can be found in the cervical vertebrate.
- hinge joint, this joint is most commonly found in the elbow.
the main joint movement are:
structure of main muscles in the human body
- there are more than 600 muscles in the body, some muscles move involuntary such as the heart which is pumping all of the time to keep us alive.
- muscles are all made of the same substance which is an elastic tissue.
- there are two types of muscle in the body:
-skeletal muscles determine a humans body shape and generate force to control and produce movement of the body .
-These muscles attach to bones to enable movement of our skeleton.
-Skeletal muscles also have the ability to stretch or contract and still return to their original shape.
-cardiac muscles (the heart) are able to beat regularly without external thought.
- This type of muscle is highly specialised.
- contractions can occur due to cells called pacemaker cells.
- Cardiac muscle is highly resistant to fatigue.
- bones are extremely clever and repair themselves due to mechanical demands, they lay down new bone where it needs to be replaced and reabsorb bone where it isn't needed.
- the skeletal system has many responsibilities within the body including:
- support of body
- protection of main organs
- movement of the body
- mineral storage
- the structure of the skeleton allows the dancer to move and structures the shape of each movement.
- one of the most important bones within the human body is the spine, the spine is made up out of 33 vertebrates.
- the vertebrates divide into 5 sections : the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum and the coccyx.
functions of the muscular system
- any movement within the body will cause the working muscles to shorten to cause the movement.
- the opposing muscle will work in the opposite way to cause movement. Both muscles contracting, shortening and lengthening.
-muscles easily get fatigued especially when dancing, fatigue is when the muscle is unable to sustain a contraction and become progressively weaker.
our muscles behave in 4 ways:
- strength (can exert strong force)
it is important to have strong muscles because this increases joint stability.
muscle tone helps prevent postural problems .
muscular strength contributes to agility and helps control of movements.
- speed (contract fast)
fast twitch muscles provide rapid movement quickly
the muscles use glycogen and require anaerobic enzymes to produce power
slow twitch muscles have a slower contraction time.
these muscles use oxygen for power and have a majority of aerobic enzymes
these types of muscles are large and are used for holding posture.
- endurance (can continue to contract and relax for a period of time)
ability of a muscle or a group of muscles to perform for a long time.
there are two types of endurance , muscular endurance and cardiovascular endurance.
- flexibility (extend in length)
flexibility is to do with the elasticity of the muscle and is measured by the range of motion in a certain joint.
flexibility is influence by the structure of joints bones and ligaments.
- hyper mobility is a condiotion that can increase flexibility
-the main functions of respiratory system is to supply oxygen to the blood so that the blood can be used correctly in the circulatory system.
- this system helps us to extract oxygen from the air and transfer it to the blood stream and excrete carbon dioxide and other waste products.
- respiration takes place with the help of the nose mouth and trachea (found in the upper respiratory tracht) and the lungs bronchial tree and diaphragm (found in the lower respiratory tracht)
- - muscles are under control of the brain and the spinal cord, signals are transmitted from the central nervous system via nerve cells to muscle fibers causing them to contract.
-the nervous system can be trained to establish nerve pathways allowing the muscles to remember a particular movement.
-new movements are controlled by cerebal cortex and feel awkward until new pathways are formed .
-motor skills are developed from a young age through maturation, this what enable humans to do simple fundamental skills such as walking and running etc.
there are three different types of motor skills
respiratory system in exercise and performance
breathing is a necessity to every human in existence and we usually do it without thinking subconsciously.
-breathing is especially important to dancers as it allows oxygen cells to the muscles releasing energy and allowing the muscles to move.
- breathing keeps the body able to move and work in a dance class.
- however improper breathing causes increased tension in the upper back and neck and also causes our muscles to fatigue quicker increasing the risk of injury.
environmental factors that can affect breathing are:
- excessive heat
- high humidity
- most dancers hold their breath when scared or concentrating on certain movements that they usually cant do.
- breathing can make a movement look a lot bigger and can also help in performance, it can also help postural alignment and stamina.
nervous system in exercise and performance
nerve pathways are formed through repetition and practice of steps. this means there are many skills that go into dancing.
complex combination skills
ability to control extremities
integration of the limbs
skills of stability
integration of other elements whilst dancing.
the stages of doing these skills are:
circulatory system in exercise and performance
the circulatory system adapts and changes most when we do a warm as it is getting the body ready for a dance class or a performance both of which are high intensity.
- our breathing becomes faster and deeper.
- there is also a rise in heart rate so that glucose and oxygen in the blood can be pumped round quicker to get to the muscles.
-as the heart is working harder and faster then before the internal body temperature will begin to rise.
- warm muscles can also help with the elasticity of our muscles and increase flexibility in class.
effects of smoking on the dancer.
- smoking also effects a dancers breathing because the carbon monoxide produced by cigarettes, if both carbon monoxide and oxygen are inhaled, carbon monoxide will attach itself to haemoglobin.
-This reduces the amount of haemoglobin available to bind to oxygen, so the body and tissues become starved of oxygen.
- this causes smoker have less ability to maintain high quality performance over long periods of time or at high intensity.
- this also makes smokers more prone to injury as they will fatigue quicker due to the lack of oxygen going to the muscles.
knowledge on the circulatory system can help a performer in training because they will realise how important a warm up before class actually is.
- it is also important for the dancer to know how intricate and small parts of the circulatory system are as this will make them more aware of their nutritious behavior because if arteries get built up with fat this will decrease the speed of blood flow and also decrease the amount of oxygen getting to the muscles during a performance.
knowledge on the nervous system will help a performer in training because if they find that they are slow at mastering movements or need help with fine tuning actions they can use things such as proprioception exercises.
knowledge of the respiratory system will help a performer in training because they would know that correct breathing can enhance performance aesthetically and physically because the body is getting oxygen to the muscles.
- a fracture is where there is a break in part of the bone however the bone is still attached.
- a fracture can occur because of high impact force onto the area of the fracture.
-this could occur in the studio by landing on the area of fracture by falling over or even getting dropped from a lift.
- a fracture would usually be treated in hospital by putting fractured area into a cast, however to know that the injury is serious enough to go the hospital to get checked you should use:
PRICED Protection Rest Ice Compression Elevation Diagnosis
- to prevent this injury from occurring make sure that you have enough rest so that burn out doesn't occur and that you are not over worked
Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS).
Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) or better known as shin splints. is a common injury for dancers as it usually occurs after strenuous exercise and doing stop start activities such as dance. The pain will occur in the tibia which runs down the inside part of your shin. It starts of as a dull ache due to the layer of connective tissue that covers the surface of the shin bone (periosteum) becoming inflamed.
To treat this injury you should try to rest from exercise straining the shin bone, however you can still do swimming, yoga or upper body exercise to remain fit. To reduce swelling you can use ice at regular intervals, and also do calf stretches to try and ease the pain.
To prevent this injury from happening you could wear trainers/ shoes with a thick sole instead of dancing in bare feet to absorb some of the shock. You could also try to avoid dancing on floors that aren't sprung when possible.
Tendonitis is a painful condition caused by swollen or injured tendons in the body. Tendon pain is usually caused by tears in the surrounding tissue cells, tendonitis is usually found in the; shoulder, elbow, wrist, finger, thigh, knee or the back of the heel (Achilles).
To treat tendonitis you are supposed to rest the area that is affected and stop doing the activity that has caused the symptoms. Ice can also help ease the pain and reduce any swelling. Over the counter painkillers will also reduce pain until the tendon ahs started to heal.
To prevent tendonitis from occurring it is essential that you warm up properly before vigorous activity as it prep[ares the body before excersise. It is also important also that you cool down and stretch properly after exercising aswell.