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The Marianas Trench

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C Qi

on 6 October 2017

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Transcript of The Marianas Trench

Kelps are large seaweeds belonging to the brown algae in the order Laminariales. Kelp grows in underwater "forests" in shallow oceans. Kelp is another plant of this biome, it lives 98 to 131 feet from the surface. Though researchers have found them as deep as 196 feet below the surface.

The biome that our group picked to research on is the deep sea biome. The deep sea biome has four zones (Mesopelagic Zone, Bathypelagic Zone, Abyssopelagic Zone, and the Hadalpelagic Zone) and it’s basically anything that is below about 600 feet (200m) in the ocean. The place we chose to focus on for this biome is the Marianas Trench. The Marianas Trench is the deepest point of the oceans on earth and it is located in the western Pacific Ocean, east of the 14 Marianas Islands.
Dumbo octopus (Grimpoteuthis)
Some animals in the Marianas Trench located in the Pacific Ocean are creatures such as the Dumbo Octopus who lives in the depth of 300- 5000m. The Dumbo octopus are usually 20-30 cm long. This animal got its name from Dumbo the Disney character because of its big ears. The Dumbo Octopus has big ears and big eyes its skin usually is an orange color. This octopus is known as the deepest living octopus and lies under the umbrella octopus category.

Phytoplankton is a plant of the deep-sea biome. They live by the surface because they still rely on sunlight. When the plant dies it floats to the down and feeds the fish that live deep down. Phytoplankton is also known as microalgae, and this plant is similar to terrestrial plants in that they contain chlorophyll and require sunlight in order to live and grow. Phytoplankton also require inorganic nutrients such as nitrates, phosphates, and sulfur which they convert into proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.

Telescope Octopus (Amphitretus pelagicus)
Another animal located in Marianas Trench is the Telescope Octopus who lives around the depth of 1000-4000m. The Telescope octopus has big eyes located on the end of stalks making them able to move their eyes; because of their eyes being on stalks they were named Telescope octopus. This octopus is closely related to the glass octopus moderately elongated eyes, however the telescope octopus is the only known octopus to possess such extreme, protruding eyes.

The Marianas Trench
Deep Sea Biome
By: Claire Xu, Erin Ginter, and Leah Flavel

Man's Impact
The deep sea biome is the deepest place on earth so most people think that we can’t have a huge impact on it. However we do have a large impact on this biome. We affect this deep ocean biome by waste and litter dumping into the ocean. The litter and waste can actually go deep down into the ocean and affecting this biome. The main impacts on the ocean are grouped into three major categories: waste and litter dumping (human impact), resource exploitation, and climate change.
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Conservation groups
Football Fish (Himantolophidae)
Some more examples of animals in the Marianas Trench are the Football fish that lives at the depth of 1000-1400m. The Football fish as its name suggests is the size of a football. It is covered in spiny scales and branches extend from its head with tiny glowing lights on the ends of them. These attract prey, which are then engulfed in the football fish's large toothy mouth.

Viperfish (Chauliodus)
The Viperfish is also native to the Marianas Trench they live around 5,000 feet below the sea surface. Viperfish are a ferocious deep sea predator with long fangs that cannot fit inside of their mouth. This fish usually grows up to about 11 inches and is usually in a dark silvery blue color.

Another type of plant that lives in this biome is algae, though it may not sound like a plant it is. Algae doesn’t have true roots, stems, and leaves. They are usually microscopic, but some can be large like marine seaweeds. There are many types of algae like, Diatoms, Chlorophyta, Euglenopyta, Dinoflagellata, Chrysophyta, Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta, and Cyanobacteria.

Red Algae Seaweeds
The red algae seaweed gets their red color from a pigment named phycoerythrin. This pigment helps the plant to photosynthesis dim sunlight. That way this seaweed can thrive deeper ocean waters than many other forms of green seaweed. However, even with their ability to live in deep water, red algae seaweeds still prefer tropical or temperate climates.

We contacted two different conservation groups for the Marianas Trench/Deep Sea biome. We got a reply from both conservation groups. The first group we contacted was “The Pew Charitable Trusts” (http://www.pewtrusts.org/en). They send an email back to us with some websites for information. The second group we had contacted was the Deep Sea Conservation Coalition (http://www.savethehighseas.org/ )they replied telling us that all the information they can give us is on their website.
The first zone of the deep sea biome is the Mesopelagic Zone which is also called the Twilight zone; it extends from about 200-700 m. The temperature of this zone is about 4 °C (39 °F)- 20 °C (68 °F). The next zone is the Bathypelagic Zone also called the Midnight zone; it goes from about 700- 4000 meters. The temperature is about 4-10 C°. The zone after that is the Abyssopelagic Zone also called the Abyss; it goes from 4000- 6000 meters. The temperature of this zone is around 2 °C to 3 °C (35 °F to 37 °F). The final zone is the Hadalpelagic Zone; it goes down 6000 meters to the bottom of the ocean area. The temperature of this zone is just a few degrees above freezing.
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