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Spanish American War
Transcript of Spanish American War
(One of those wars Americans tend to forget) "The war of the United States with Spain was very brief. Its results were many, startling, and of world-wide meaning." --Henry Cabot Lodge The War in the Philippines Spain thought America would first invade Cuba---it was the Philippines. Commodore Dewey steamed to the Pacific and opened fire in Manila (Capitol city). Within minutes America had destroyed every ship there, thus allowing for American troops to invade the mainland. Why do you think the U.S. wanted to take the Philippines first? Photos from the Olympia The Battle for Manila was a test of America’s new naval prowess. Dewy had the support of the Filipinos who also wanted freedom from Spain. Over 11,000 Americans joined Filipino rebels led by Emilio Aguinaldo. The U.S. army was ill prepared and poorly trained. In August, Spanish troops surrendered to the U.S. War in the Caribbean It started with a naval blockade/ battle at Santiago de Cuba 120,000 Americans volunteered to fight in Cuba (Poor training, ill-equipped, ineffective leadership). -Wool uniforms-Commanders sat around talking about their Civil War days. Rough Riders The Rough Riders (17,000 soldiers including 4 African-American regiments) landed at Santiago Harbor and began the invasion. Volunteer cavalry under the command of Theodore Roosevelt. Cuban rebels had already been fighting by the time they arrived. Kettle Hill and San Juan Hill The most famous battles occurred near Santiago. The uphill charge of Kettle Hill which cleared the way for an infantry attack at the strategic San Juan Hill. The battle resulted in a victory for the Cubans and the Americans. Teddy Roosevelt Even though the Cubans were close to defeating the Spanish without the help of the Americans, Teddy Roosevelt was hailed by the American papers as the hero at San Juan Hill. He called it “The greatest day of his life.” It contributed to his political career. Surrender Two days after San Juan Hill, the Spanish tried to escape at Santiago. The U.S. then invaded Puerto Rico. This resulted in the destruction of the Spanish Fleet. Treaty of Paris After 15 weeks, the “splendid little war” was over. August 12, 1898 cease fire December 1898 met to discuss a treaty in Paris. Philippine–American War They see the U.S. as betrayers. Fighting lasted three years. Guerrilla warfare tactics utilized. Revenge: Killing prisoners/burning villages/torture. Both sides tried to use the press to their advantage. Mark Twain famously opposed the war by using his influence in the press. He felt it betrayed the ideals of American Democracy by not allowing the Filipino people to choose their own destiny. "There is the case of the Philippines. I have tried hard, and yet I cannot for the life of me comprehend how we got into that mess. Perhaps we could not have avoided it -- perhaps it was inevitable that we should come to be fighting the natives of those islands -- but I cannot understand it, and have never been able to get at the bottom of the origin of our antagonism to the natives. I thought we should act as their protector -- not try to get them under our heel. We were to relieve them from Spanish tyranny to enable them to set up a government of their own, and we were to stand by and see that it got a fair trial. It was not to be a government according to our ideas, but a government that represented the feeling of the majority of the Filipinos, a government according to Filipino ideas. That would have been a worthy mission for the United States. But now -- why, we have got into a mess, a quagmire from which each fresh step renders the difficulty of extrication immensely greater. I'm sure I wish I could see what we were getting out of it, and all it means to us as a nation." 1936- Commonwealth status for the Philippines. 1946-The Philippines regain independence. The Cuba Situation Post Spanish-American War: U.S. becomes protectorate. A protectorate is, in international law, a political entity that formally agrees (voluntarily or under pressure) by treaty to enter into an unequal relationship with another, stronger state, called the protector, which engages to protect it (diplomatically or, if needed, militarily) against third parties, in exchange for which the protectorate usually accepts specified obligations, which may vary greatly, depending on the real nature of their relationship. Cuba The U.S.:
- appointed officials
- built infrastructure
- gave food/clothing
- eliminated Yellow Fever
- made large loans to
- U.S. took 90%
Cuban trade Platt Amendment ends in 1934 Batista in power (1933-1959) Castro revolt (Executions in public, refugees flood to Florida, US businesses seized) Eisenhower cuts sugar imports/Castro bonds with the USSR. The Plaza of St. Louis during the World’s Fair 1904 Sponsored entirely by the U.S. Government. Attract investments. The reservation exhibit was the highlight of the Expositoin. “fills a visitor full of pictures…that keep coming up in his mind for years afterwards.” Types and Development of Man, 1904 Japanese Russian Americo-European Hindu Turk Chinese Arab Indian Negro Ainu Bushman Prehistoric man Visayan Mothers and Their Children A Visayan Troupe of Singers, Dancers and Orchestra Players 1904 How did the Philippine Reservation reflect the following statement? McKinley said the Philippines would become: ”a land of plenty and increasing possibilities; a people redeemed from savage and indolent habits, devoted the arts of peace, in touch with commerce and trade of all nations, enjoying the blessings of freedom, of civil and religious liberty, of education, and of homes, and whose children’s children shall for ages hence bless the American republic because it emancipated their fatherland, and set them in the pathway of the world’s best civilization.” Reproduction of an American School for Filipinos in the Philippines, 1904 American Cultures Journal Critics of the United States have often used the word “imperialist” to describe America’s foreign policy, up until the present age. Using yesterday’s reading as a springboard, do you think this is an accurate or unfair assessment? Debate over the Treaty Did America have the right to annex the Philippines? Imperialism was the real issue. McKinley prayed and decided that there was no other option than to annex the Philippines in order to uplift and Christianize them. Justification (McKinley seemed to forget that they were already a Christian people) Many thought the treaty violated the Declaration of Independence by denying self-government to the newly acquired nations. Booker T. Washington argued that America ought to solve its own race problems at home before taking on social problems abroad. AFL leader Samuel Gompers thought Americans would compete with Americans for jobs. Treaty approved by Congress in February 1899. Puerto Rico Enjoys Commonwealth status.
(Commonwealth: Local control-laws finances) U.S. handles defense/tariffs Puerto Ricans are U.S. citizens-can travel freely. They can also elect non-voting people to Congress.