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Yosemite National Park
Transcript of Yosemite National Park
What is the most common type of rock?
What is the largest falls in Yosemite Valley?
What river goes through Yosemite?
What road cuts through park?
What are the largest trees? “Crown Jewel” of the National Parks Valley of Enchantment Located in Tuolumne, Mariposa and Madera counties in the central eastern portion of California
https://maps.google.com/maps?client=safari&q=mono+craters+yosemite&oe=UTF-8&hl=en&ie=UTF-8 Cultural History of Yosemite Yosemite's first residents: Native Americans 10,000 years ago
Yosemite Valley "Ahwahnee" or "place of the gaping mouth”
Ahwahneechee tribe: traded with eastern side of the Sierra.
1850 Gold conflict over resources.
1855 first tourists 2 highways enter park West, South
Tioga road crosses the mountains to the Eastern Sierra
Yosemite Valley in Center
Mission: protect park for future generations while creating enjoyment to today’s visitors Park Entrance
Giant Sequoias inspired protection of the park over 150 years ago
Yosemite was central to the development of the national park idea
Galen Clark and John Muir
1,500 square miles of reserved forest lands
1,600 miles of streams
800 miles of hiking trails
350 miles of roads
95% designated wilderness free from roads and cars Yosemite as a National Park Places to Visit: Historic/Cultural Hiking, camping, biking, rock climbing
Mule & horseback rides
Rafting & water sports
Big trees tram tour, guided bus tours
Nature & history programs
Ice skating rink Activities Ski School
Backcountry Ski Tours
Glacier Point Ski Hut
Tempo Dome Tour and lessons
Snow Tubing Activities in the Snow Yosemite Valley once lay beneath a sea
lifted above sea level and flexed into a mountain range surmounted by a chain of volcanoes
Granite formed from molten rock at the roots of these volcanoes
overlying sedimentary and volcanic rock gradually weathered and eroded away
core of Sierra Nevada How Yosemite Valley was Created from Glaciers Three million years ago, the Ice Ages brought glaciers that scraped and carved the valleys and canyons
Granite shows the direction of glacial movement
About 1 million years ago, snow and ice accumulated, forming glaciers at the higher alpine meadows that moved down the river valleys
1996, the Happy Isles rockfall uplift increased the steepness of stream and river beds, resulting in formation of deep, narrow canyons
The downslope movement of the ice masses cut and sculpted the U-shaped valley that attracts so many visitors to its scenic vistas today. Canyon Formation 50 million years ago.
The landscape consisted of rolling hills, broad valleys, and meandering streams.
The Merced River meandered through a wide trough whose slopes supported hardwood forests.
10 million years ago.
A more dissected landscape ensued as the whole range was uplifted and tilted westward.
This westward tilt accelerated the Merced River's flow and the river cut deeper into its valley.
The climate grew cooler and drier. Forests of coniferous trees, including sequoias, dominated.
3 million years ago.
A canyon landscape developed with continued uplift.
The raging Merced cut its canyon as much as 3.000 feet deep.
Its tributary streams, with smaller drainage basins and volumes of water, cut more slowly.
The Ice Ages approach brought a colder climate and thinning forests.
1 million to 250,000 years ago.
At least one and perhaps more glacial advances filled Yosemite Valley to its brim.
Half Dome projected 900 feet above the ice, but many peaks to the north were engulfed.
The Valley was gouged and quarried into a U-shaped trough with steep walls.
Many Merced River tributaries were now cascades high above the Valley.
30,000 years ago.
During the Tioga glaciation Yosemite Glacier a smaller ice sheet, advanced into the Valley and terminated near Bridalveil Fall.
As thin as it was, it had little erosive power to enlarge the Valley further.
10,000 years ago.
The last Valley glacier hat melted and its terminal moraine has dammed the Valley to create a shallow lake, Lake Yosemite.
Lake Yosemite eventually filled in with silt, leaving today's level Valley floor
-Glaciers did not directly create today's free-leaping waterfalls, although they helped set the stage. Granite (Granite, granodiorite, tonalite, quartz monzonite, and quartz monzodiorite)
Granite is an igneous rock
-Cooled and solidified from magma (molten rock)
-cooled miles below the surface
-over thousands of years
- large crystals form
-cracks were kneeled out of it
The glaciers have a hard time moving granite
Glaciers polishes the rock And all, that.. Granite (1) deposition and deformation of the metamorphic rocks and emplacement of the granitic rocks during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic; and
(2) later uplift, erosion, and glaciation of the rocks during the Cenozoic to form today's landscape.
majority is plutonic igneous rocks
formed during Cretaceous period.
granite is not monolithic.
Layered metamorphic rocks (less than 5% of park) glaciated landscape
scenery resulted from the interaction of the glaciers and the underlying rocks was the basis for its preservation as a national park
Formed iconic landmarks such as Yosemite Valley, Hetch Hetchy, Yosemite Falls, Vernal and Nevada Falls, Bridalveil Fall, Half Dome, the Clark Range, and the Cathedral Range
Landforms that are the result of glaciation: U-shaped canyons, jagged peaks, rounded domes, waterfalls, and moraines.
Glacially-polished granite is further evidence of glaciation, and is common in Yosemite National Park.
Lower Montane Forest
Upper Montane Forest
Alpine Zone Five major vegetation zones: Flora California Ground Squirrel, Western Grey Squirrel
22 native reptile species
Northern Pacific rattlesnake
Western pond turtle: listed as a California Species of Concern (CSC) due to population declines
Fish Rainbow Trout Fauna Yosemite Valley One of the most famous rock formations on the face of the Earth
16 ½ miles
Glacial erosion: steepening, exfoliation, and rock fall
Hike get to walk up by Vernon Falls, Nevada Falls
One of biggest dangers is the weather, thunderstorms and lightening Half Dome High altitude, South rim of Yosemite Valley
To East lies Half Dome and Tanaya Canyon
Glacier Point Road
Vast forests of Sugar Pine, Ponderosa Pine, Red Fir
-some are largest and most distinct of their kind Glacier Point Yosemite Firefall
Glacier Point Firefall
Burn red fern bark fire, glow of the bonfire high up on Glacier Point.
The Yosemite Fire fall was a summer tradition in Yosemite Valley from 1872 until 1968 Horsetail Falls/El Capitan Falls Night skies
Hiking Half Dome
Sky islands Uniqueness of Yosemite Plateaus stood out above glaciers
-glaciers carved around them
-became isolated islands
High, flat plateaus
Elevations around 12,000 feet
Tioga Road leads up to these
Plants are very short, few inches in diameter but most count their lives in decades, some of them centuries. Plateaus: Sky Island World famous for waterfalls
Full moon, sky is clear there is enough light to generate a rainbow, in the night, at a place like Yosemite Fall
Back in 1800s John Muir wrote about these rainbows, or spray-bows as he called them
May, June best time to watch Moonbows Fall colors
Spring is the biggest change
Wildflowers slowly work their way up mountain slope
Waterfalls from snowmelt
Yosemite falls can dry Seasonal Changes Water contains thousands of lakes and ponds
Two federally designated Wild and Scenic Rivers:
-Tuolumne Dangers http://www.yosemite.ca.us/formation/
http://www.nps.gov/yose/naturescience/plants.htm Sources •Range of Light: -http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_QqfifH3-rk
•Climb to Half Dome: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bHvmiYX6eRQ
•Yosemite Youtube Channel: http://www.youtube.com/user/yosemitenationalpark
•Visit Yosemite: http://www.monolake.org/visit/yosemite
•Night Skies: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZhgR3zVfo-0
•Web Cam: http://www.yosemiteconservancy.org/webcams
http://www.nps.gov/yose/photosmultimedia/webcams.htm Additional Sources Yosemite National Park Yosemite Valley
Yosemite Falls: Lower and Upper
Mariposa Grove Park Features Geologic Time Yosemite Glatiation Geologic Timeline -Half Dome
-Giant Sequoias Of California's 7,000 plant species, more than 20% within Yosemite
Trees that lived for thousands of years
Overwhelming diversity and variety
Giant Sequoias the biggest trees in the world
California Black Oak
-It is a fleshy plant that lives on dead organic matter
-mountains of Western North America
-one flower for each root Visitor Center
Theater- Spirit of Yosemite presents dramatic overview of the park
Indian Cultural museum- exhibits + demonstrations; window to the past
Indian village- learn about the first people in the Yosemite valley
Pioneer history center- brings past to life
Exhibit hall- geologic past and its rich natural and human history Dramatic ex. of a Glacially Carved Canyon
Towering cliffs and waterfalls are amongst the tallest in the world
Merced River runs through valley
Just 7 miles of the park Water
cold, swift. Especially in Spring time
beautiful, deceiving, coldness, strength, and the things it hides from you is deceiving. Floods.
Water is aerated, so much air in water can not swim/float
Last decade 16 water related deaths in parks
Hot and dry
Sun is more intense at higher elevations
strong storms. Lightening when climbing Half Dome
rock slides, rock falls, landslides, avalanches, earthquakes
Bears, coyotes, rattlesnakes