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Annexation of the Philippines
Transcript of Annexation of the Philippines
Why Did the U.S. Want to Take Over The Philippines?
Expanding to nations outside of North America was key. America:
Wanted a favorable balance of trade
Needed exports to exceed imports
Was looking to get new land, particularly islands with fresh fruit
Had a desire to expand to foreign markets
Wanted to spread Christianity
Believed that they were racially superior
By Emilee Gancarz and Shannon Mommsen
Period 2 Honors U.S. History
November 28, 2012
The Philippines had been a Spanish colony for over 300 years
They revolted against the Spanish in 1896
The Spanish-American War was fought in 1898
America helped the Philippines to overthrow the Spanish
The US defeated Spain
At the end of the war US troops were in control of Manila, the Philippines' capitol
The Treaty of Paris ended the war
The treaty gave America temporary control of Cuba
It allowed America to have colonial authority over Puerto Rico and Guam
It also allowed the US to buy the Philippines, which consist of 7,107 individual islands, from Spain for $20 million
The US had control over the capitol city, Manila
Began on February 4, 1899-Private William Grayson fired the first shot at a group of Filipinos approaching his position
The war was America's first true imperial war as a world power
Also called The Philippine Insurrection by the US and The Philippine War of Independence by the Philippines
Having been a Spanish colony, the Philippines wanted complete independence
They were against the US annexing them
On December 21st, 1898, President McKinley issued the Benevolent Assimilation Proclamation, in which he ordered the US forces occupying the Philippines to start imposing American sovereignty over the Philippines
A Show of Imperialism
It was a sign of imperialism because America had influence overseas
America governed the Philippines
Modernized the nation
Introduced the English language
Having won the war, the US annexed the Philippines and colonized it
The Philippines became a strategic military base for the US
The Philippines did not get its independence from the US until July 4, 1946
The people who were against annexing the Philippines had only one main reason:
Doing so would be unconstitutional
The US was founded on the principle that government should be based on "the consent of the governed"
Since the Philippines wanted to be independent, it would be hypocritical to go against that principle by annexing them
Some people against annexation, such as Democratic presidential candidate of 1896 and 1900 William Jennings Bryan, didn't want to accept Filipinos as US citizens
The U.S. strength would increase from gaining overseas territories
Places the U.S. ruled over would benefit
The U.S. duty was to spread their values and beliefs overseas.
The geographic location of the Philippines would allow the U.S. to gain strategic value (Pacific Ocean).
If the U.S. didn't annex the Philippines, it was likely another country would.
Countries like Japan and Germany were already colonizing. The U.S. felt the need to follow in their footsteps.
The U.S. adopted the idea of a "white man's burden" from Britain
The U.S. had a duty of spreading their racial superiority, wisdom, and government with the diverse population around the world
One of the main reasons the U.S. wanted to annex the Philippines was to "Christianize" the Filipinos.
The Filipinos were almost entirely Catholic already
Based on the American public's ignorance, they thought the Filipinos were mostly "heathens"
Many Protestants believed that although the Filipinos were mostly Catholic, they would still have heathenism ways
The Philippine-American War
The US had superior firepower, but the Filipinos fought a guerilla war so the fighting was drawn out
The US had the support of Admiral Dewey's fleet, which was shelling the Filipino Army
It was a very bloody war-the US wiped out entire villages, killing thousands of civilians
Filipino leader Emilio Aguinaldo was captured in March, 1902
The war officially ended on July 4, 1902
There was still fighting on some islands for several more years
4,234 US combatants
20,000 Filipino combatants
200,000-500,000+ Filipino civilians