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The Process of Narration: 6 Questions
Transcript of The Process of Narration: 6 Questions
6 Basic Questions About the Act of Narration
Is the basic narrative mode mimetic or diegetic?
How is the narrative focalized?
Who's telling the story?
How is time handled?
How is it packaged?
How is speech and thought presented?
It's the telling or relating.
WHO IS TELLING THE STORY?
So, what about a mimetic manner of presenting the narrative?
Mimesis means showing or dramatising.
What parts of the text are presented in a diegetic manner?
How does the choice to use diegesis affect the type of information presented?
What is a disembodied narrator?
THE DRAMATIZED, OR
They can be heterodiegetic
one who isn't a character in the story he/she narrates but an outsider to it ("other telling")
or they can be homodiegetic
one who is present as a character int he story he tells ("same telling")
1st Person Narrators: Heterodiegetic
1st Person Narrators: Homodiegetic
Identify the stories from
that make use of the above narrators.
How are the analeptic and proleptic details in the first sentence of "The Enemy", for example, used to establish foregrounding themes?
Does the author make use of analepsis, prolepsis, or both?
HOW IS THE
What's internal focalisation?
What is it?
What is it?
If the focaliser (or reflector) of a tale is the character whose point of view is given to readers, then who, if any, is the focaliser of this story?
Is it mimetic, diegetic, or both?
what happens to the pacing?
Why would an author choose to change the method of presenting the narration to a specified specified setting andmake use of dialogue which contains direct speech?
What key scenes are presented mimetically?
How does mimesis affect the pacing?
What's revealed about characterization, setting, or relationships?
What is the dialogue or text in the scene that shows this?
Direct speech is used in mimetic scenes.
Find 3 different mimetic scenes . . .
Heterodiegetic / Homodietic
HOW IS TIME HANDLED?
HOW IS THE STORY
Is the story a frame narrative (the primariy narrative)?
story within the story--
this secondary narrative
is usually the MAIN story
HOW DO AUTHORS REPRESENT
SPEECH AND THOUGHT?
Various options are available:
Direct and tagged
This is the easiest option to present speech.
"What's your name?" Mario asked her.
(the attached phrases which indicate who the speaker is)
Direct and Untagged
This could be confusing if more than two characters engage in an extended conversation
"What's your name?"
first utterance is tagged
but not the second
What tagging does--it blunts the edge of the mimesis, edging the showing back to telling
Direct and Selectively Tagged
"What's your name," asked Mario.
Tagged Indirect Speech
He asked her what her name was, and she told him it was Thelma.
tagging is integral: they're not separated from utterances but run into them
the speech here is in reported form--we're not given the actual spoken words
a formal distancing between the reader
and the events
What was her name? It was Thelma.
Free Indirect Speech
The speech here is also
reported or indirect
See the switching of verbs from present to past tense?
Effect of this style?
Subtle. Its advangtage to the writer is that it suits an internally focalized narrative
Find an example of each of the 5 options from
Stories of Ourselves
Provide the quoted text
Identify the option
Identify the story
1. "She would say, 'Go ahead and do what you doing. You is your father child, you hear, not mine.'" (Direct and tagged, "The Enemy")