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The Process of Narration: 6 Questions

We can discover much from a story by looking not only at the tale itself but at how the tale is told--these 6 questions come from Barry's chapter on Narratology.
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on 5 June 2014

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Transcript of The Process of Narration: 6 Questions

The Process of Narration: 6 Questions
6 Basic Questions About the Act of Narration
Is the basic narrative mode mimetic or diegetic?

How is the narrative focalized?

Who's telling the story?

How is time handled?

How is it packaged?

How is speech and thought presented?
Diegesis?
It's the telling or relating.
Internal
External
Zero
WHO IS TELLING THE STORY?
THE DISEMBODIED
NARRATOR
So, what about a mimetic manner of presenting the narrative?
Mimesis means showing or dramatising.

What parts of the text are presented in a diegetic manner?
How does the choice to use diegesis affect the type of information presented?
What is a disembodied narrator?
THE DRAMATIZED, OR
INTRUSIVE, NARRATOR
They can be heterodiegetic
one who isn't a character in the story he/she narrates but an outsider to it ("other telling")
or they can be homodiegetic
one who is present as a character int he story he tells ("same telling")
1st Person Narrators: Heterodiegetic






1st Person Narrators: Homodiegetic
Identify the stories from
Stories of
Ourselves
that make use of the above narrators.
How are the analeptic and proleptic details in the first sentence of "The Enemy", for example, used to establish foregrounding themes?
Does the author make use of analepsis, prolepsis, or both?

Explain. How?
HOW IS THE
NARRATIVE FOCALIZED?
INTERNAL FOCALISATION
What's internal focalisation?



EXTERNAL FOCALISATION
What is it?


ZERO FOCALISATION
What is it?

If the focaliser (or reflector) of a tale is the character whose point of view is given to readers, then who, if any, is the focaliser of this story?
Is it mimetic, diegetic, or both?
what happens to the pacing?
Why would an author choose to change the method of presenting the narration to a specified specified setting andmake use of dialogue which contains direct speech?

What key scenes are presented mimetically?

How does mimesis affect the pacing?
What's revealed about characterization, setting, or relationships?

What is the dialogue or text in the scene that shows this?
Direct speech is used in mimetic scenes.
Find 3 different mimetic scenes . . .
COVERT
EFFACED
NON-INTRUSTIVE
CHART IT:
Omnicient Narrator:
Heterodiegetic / Homodietic
HOW IS TIME HANDLED?
HOW IS THE STORY
PACKAGED?

Is the story a frame narrative (the primariy narrative)?
Frame narrative
Embedded narrative
the
real
story within the story--
this secondary narrative
is usually the MAIN story
HOW DO AUTHORS REPRESENT
SPEECH AND THOUGHT?

Various options are available:
Option
Direct and tagged
This is the easiest option to present speech.

"What's your name?" Mario asked her.
Direct speech
the tagging
(the attached phrases which indicate who the speaker is)
Option
Direct and Untagged
This could be confusing if more than two characters engage in an extended conversation
"What's your name?"
"Thelma.""
first utterance is tagged
but not the second
What tagging does--it blunts the edge of the mimesis, edging the showing back to telling
Option
Direct and Selectively Tagged
"What's your name," asked Mario.
"Thelma."
Option
Tagged Indirect Speech
He asked her what her name was, and she told him it was Thelma.
tagging is integral: they're not separated from utterances but run into them
the speech here is in reported form--we're not given the actual spoken words

Effect?
a formal distancing between the reader
and the events
What was her name? It was Thelma.
Option
Free Indirect Speech
The speech here is also
reported or indirect
See the switching of verbs from present to past tense?
Effect of this style?
Subtle. Its advangtage to the writer is that it suits an internally focalized narrative
YOUR TURN:
Find an example of each of the 5 options from
Stories of Ourselves
.
Provide the quoted text

Identify the option

Identify the story
Example:
1. "She would say, 'Go ahead and do what you doing. You is your father child, you hear, not mine.'" (Direct and tagged, "The Enemy")
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