Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Bipolar Disorder

No description
by

Joshua Hubbard

on 8 January 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Bipolar Disorder

"I Love You! I Hate You!" By Joshua Hubbard and Tyler Nickerson
Honors Psychology
Mr. Jablonski Classification/Criteria
of a Major Depressive Episode Mania Classification/Criteria
for a Manic Episode Classification/Criteria
of a Mixed Episode Classification/Criteria
for a Hypomanic Episode Five (or more) of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-week period and represent a change from previous functioning; at least one of the symptoms is either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure.
i.Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day, as indicated by either subject report (e.g. feels sad or empty) or observation made by others (e.g. appears tearful).
1.Note: in children or adolescents, can be irritable mood
ii.Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities of the day, nearly every day.
iii.Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain (e.g. change in more than 5% of body weight in a month), or decrease in appetite nearly every day.
iv.Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day
v.Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day
vi.Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day
vii.Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt (may be delusional) nearly every day (not merely self-reproach or guilt about being sick)
viii.Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness, nearly every day
ix.Recurrent thoughts of death (not just fear of dying), recurrent suicidal ideation without specific plan, or a suicide attempt or specific plan for committing suicide
b.The symptoms do not meet criteria for a Mixed Episode
c.The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
d.The symptoms are not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g. a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition (e.g. hyperthyroidism)
e.The symptoms are not better accounted for by Bereavement, i.e., after the loss of a loved one, the symptoms persist for longer than two months or are characterized by marked functional impairment, morbid preoccupation with worthlessness, suicidal ideation, psychotic symptoms, or psychomotor retardation a.Mania
i.Heighted sense of self-importance
ii.Exaggerated positive outlook
iii.Significantly decreased need for sleep
iv.Poor appetite and weight loss
v.Racing speech and thoughts
vi.Impulsiveness
vii.Poor concentration
viii.Easily distracted
ix.Unrealistic belief in one’s abilities
x.Increased activity level
xi.Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities
xii.Poor financial choices
xiii.Rash spending sprees
xiv.Excessive irritability
xv.Aggressive behavior
b.Depression
i.Feelings of sadness and hopelessness
ii.Loss of interest in pleasurable or usual activities
iii.Difficulty sleeping
iv.Early-morning waking
v.Difficulty remembering
vi.Difficulty in making decisions
vii.Loss of energy and constant lethargy
viii.Sense of guilt or low self-esteem
ix.Difficulty concentrating
x.Negative thoughts about the future
xi.Weight gain or weight loss
xii.Talk of/Attempts suicide or death The criteria are met both for a Manic Episode and for a Major Depressive Episode nearly every day during at least a 1-week period
ii.The mood disturbance is sufficiently is sufficiently severe to cause marked impairment in occupational functioning or in usual social activities or relationships with others, or necessitate hospitalization to prevent harm to self or others, or there are psychotic features
iii.The symptoms are not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition A distinctive period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood, lasting at least one week (or any duration if hospitalization is necessary)
ii.During the periods of mood disturbance, three (or more) of the following symptoms have persisted (four if the mood is only irritable) and have been present to a significant degree:
1.Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity
2.Decreased need for sleep (e.g., feels rested after only 3 hours of sleep)
3.More talkative than usual or pressure to keep talking
4.Flight of ideas or subjective experience that thoughts are racing
5.Distractibility (i.e., attention too easily drawn to unimportant or irrelevant external stimuli)
6.Increase in goal-directed activity (either socially, at work or school, or sexually) or psychomotor agitation
7.Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences (e.g., engaging in unrestrained buying sprees, sexual indiscretions, or foolish business investments)
iii.The symptoms do not meet criteria for a Mixed Episode
iv.The mood disturbance is sufficiently severe to cause marked impairment in occupational functioning or in usual social activities or relationships with others, or to necessitate hospitalization to prevent harm to self or others, or other psychotic features.
v.The symptoms are not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition A distinct period of persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood, lasting throughout at least 4 days, that is clearly different from the usual non-depressed mood.
ii.During the period of mood disturbance, three (or more) of the following symptoms have persisted (four if the mood is only irritable) and have been present to a significant degree:
1.Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity
2.Decreased need for sleep (feels rested after only 3 hours of sleep)
3.More talkative than usual or pressure to keep talking
4.Flight of ideas or subjective experience that thoughts are racing
5.Distractibility
6.Increase of goal-directed activity or psychomotor agitation
7.Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for pain consequences
iii.The episode is associated with an unequivocal change in functioning that is uncharacteristic of the person when not symptomatic
iv.The disturbance in the mood and the change in functioning are observable by others
v.The episode is not severe enough to cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning, or to necessitate hospitalization, and there are no psychotic features.
vi.The symptoms are not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition All About Bipolar Disorder What is Bipolarity? According to the American Psychological Association... “A serious mental illness in which common emotions become intensely and often unpredictably magnified” Symptoms Important Note: All people with bipolar disorder have manic episodes — abnormally elevated or irritable moods that last at least a week and impair functioning. But not all become depressed. Depression a.Genetic
i.If one parent is bipolar…
1.You have a 15% – 25% chance of becoming bipolar
ii.If both parents are bipolar…
1.You have a 25% chance of becoming bipolar
iii.If your sibling is bipolar…
1.You have a 25% chance of becoming bipolar
b.Neurochemical Imbalance
i.Neurotransmitters in the brain fail to release neurochemicals such as:
1.Norepinephrine
a.Constricts blood vessels
b.Raises blood pressure
c.Dilates the trachea
2.Serotonin
a.Controls:
i.Sleep
ii.Depression
iii.Memory
iv.Additional neurological processes
3.Addition neurochemicals
c.Environment
i.Drastic life changes (marriage, death, childbirth, etc.)
ii.Prescription drug use (antidepressants, steroids, etc.)
iii.Sleeplessness
iv.Recreational drug use Causes a.Main Goals of Treatment:
i.Avoid moving from one place to another
ii.Avoid the need for hospitalization
iii.Help the patient in functioning to the best of their abilities in between manic/depressive episodes
iv.Prevent self-injury and suicide
v.Lower the frequency/severity of the episodes Modes of Treatment: Continued e.Lamotrigine
i.Treats bipolar depression
ii.Side effects:
1.Risk of serious rash or fatal skin disease
f.Topiramate
i.Treats bipolar depression
ii.Side effects:
1.Tingling in hands and feet
2.Drowsiness
3.Dizziness
4.Blurred vision
5.Cognitive difficulties (occasionally)
6.Kidney stones (occasionally)
g.Lithium
a.Best confirmed reputation for effectiveness
i.Often used long-term
ii.Prevents suicide
b.Does not work on all patients
c.Not always easy to take
d.Side effects:
i.Weight gain
ii.Tremors
iii.Muscle weakness
iv.Nausea
v.Stomach aches
vi.Diarrhea
vii.Excessive thirst
viii.Frequent urination
ix.Thyroid abnormalities Modes of Treatment
i.Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
1.Uses an electrical current to induce a small seizure while the patient is under anesthesia
2.Most effective non-medicinal treatment
ii.Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
1.Uses high-frequency magnetic pulses to target affected areas of the brain
2.Most often used following ECT Non-Medical Treatment Note: Still, all treated patients must have their blood monitored frequently Psychoeducation Goals of Psychoeducation:
1.Cope with symptoms that are present during the time the patient is taking medicine
2.Learn a healthy lifestyle:
a.Ample sleep
i.Very important in preventing manic episodes
ii.Those with fewer hours of sleep are more susceptible to mania
b.Sober
c.Etc.
3.Learn to take medications correctly
4.Learn to manage medical side-effects
5.Learn bipolarity symptoms and how to cope with them
*Difficulties with Treatment
i.Patients cannot always recognize their own manic symptoms
ii.Doctors cannot determine whether patients are responding to treatment or simply coming out of a manic phase by themselves
iii. Treatments for children and the elderly are not well-studied or researched "Bipolar Disorder Among Adults." NIMH RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Jan. 2013.
"Bipolar Disorder." Bipolar Disorder. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Dec. 2012.
"Bipolar Disorder." Bipolar Disorder. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Dec. 2012.
"Bipolar Disorder, Coping with Bipolar and Manic Depression." Bipolar Disorder, Coping with Bipolar and Manic Depression. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Dec. 2012.
"Bipolar Disorder: From Genes to Behavior Pathways." JCI -. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Dec. 2012.
"Bipolar Disorder." NIMH RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Dec. 2012.
"Bipolar Disorder--Part I." Harvard Mental Health Letter. April 2001: 1-4. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 23 Dec 2012.
"Bipolar Disorder--Part II." Harvard Mental Health Letter. May 2001: 1-4. SIRS Issues Web. 23 Dec 2012.rcher. Web.
Board, A.D.A.M. Editorial. Bipolar Disorder. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 18 Nov. 0000. Web. 23 Dec. 2012.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 01 July 2011. Web. 05 Jan. 2013.
Gardner, Amanda, and Copyright Health Magazine 2011. "U.S. Has Highest Bipolar Rate in 11-nation Study." CNN. Cable News Network, 07 Mar. 2011. Web. 05 Jan. 2013.
"Norepinephrine." Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, n.d. Web. 23 Dec. 2012.
"Serotonin." Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, n.d. Web. 23 Dec. 2012. Works Cited What Does The Research Say? According to recent research, there is a strong connection between Bipolar Disorder and the brain. These connections relate to the mood disorders of Mania and Depression that classify Bipolar Disorder. Abnormalities in the brain, such as slight differences in structure, serve as a link between the brain and disorder as similar abnormalities are found in numerous patients studied. There is also evidence of a genetic link for Bipolar Disorder, for if a relative has Bipolar Disorder, it is more likely for a person to be diagnosed with the disorder. Although the exact causes of Bipolar Disorder are unknown, there appear to be existing genetic factors along with environmental factors that can cause a person to be diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder.
1.Antidepressants
i.Tricyclics
ii.Selective Serotinin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
iii.Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
b.Not first-choice medicine for treatment
i.Can accelerate mood cycles or cause a switch to mania
ii.However, some foreign drugs are less likely to cause this switch:
1.Bupropion
2.Mirtazapine
3.Reboxetine
2.Anti-Anxiety Drugs
a.Benzodiazepines
1.Lorazepam
2.Clonazepam
ii.Calms patients in state of acute mania
iii.Not used in long-term treatment
iv.Can result in withdrawal symptoms and dependency issues in patients
3.Antipsychotic Drugs
i.Clozapine
ii.Olanzapine
1.Approved for treatment of acute mania
iii.Risperidone
iv.Quetiapine
a.Often prescribed for manic or severely depressed patients with delusions and hallucinations
b.Side effects:
i.Drowsiness
ii.Lethargy
iii.Weight gain
iv.Failure to produce ample white blood cells (very rare) i.Mood Stabilizers
1.Anticonvulsant Drugs
a.Oxcarbazepine
b.Valproate
i.Most effective with bipolar depression and patients with rapid cycles, mixed states, or many episodes of depression and mania
ii.Not effective in the long term
iii.Side effects:
1.Upset stomach
2.Drowsiness
3.Thinning hair
4.Excessive weight gain
5.Serious birth defects in pregnant women
6.It can damage:
a.The liver
b.The blood’s clotting capacity
c.Inflammation of the pancreases (rare)
c.Carbamazepine
i.Side effects
1.Drowsiness
2.Dizziness
3.Headaches
4.Blurred vision
5.Lowered white blood cell count
6.Rash
a.Can become a serious skin condition if not treated
d.Gabapentin
i.Treats mania
ii.Side effects
1.Drowsiness
2.Weight gain (rare) Medical Treatment: Other Drugs: Statistics 2.4% of people around the world have been diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder at some point in their lives.

4.4% of Americans have Bipolar Disorder.

The Ratio for Bipolar Disorder for women to men is 3:2, women are more likely to have Bipolar Disorder, but men have an early onset age.

Of those with Bipolar Disorder:
5.9% are between the ages of 18-29
4.5% are between the ages of 30-44
3.5% are between the ages of 45-59
1.0% are age 60+

For those who suffer from Bipolar Disorder:
3.9% have a lifetime prevalence where the disease is under constant monitoring
2.6% have a 12 month prevalence where the disease becomes less severe
2.2% have a 12 month prevalence classified as severe

Average onset of Bipolar Disorder is 25 years old Conclusion Although there is no cure for Bipolar Disorder, the various methods of treatment make it manageable for a person to live their lives while dealing with the disorder. When left untreated, Bipolar Disorder may become severe and highly difficult to manage, with even attempts at suicide. With treatment, however, Bipolar Disorder may become less severe and easier for a person to manage and live their lives. People with Bipolar Disorder are more likely to attempt suicide and succeed because while they are depressed they will contemplate suicide, but be unable to carry it out, while in a state of mania, however, they will remember their depressive thoughts and follow through with their suicide attempt.
Full transcript