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AP Psych Chapter 2
Transcript of AP Psych Chapter 2
Neuroscience and Behavior
“Everything psychological is simultaneously biological.”
Draw and label...The Neuron
Lack of myelin sheath = multiple sclerosis.
Draw and label...The Axon magnified
like a soaker hose resting in fluid
nothing is happening, negative ions are inside the axon, positive are outside. (turned off)
when a message comes in (and the threshold is met), the membrane allows positive ions to enter the axon. This positive charge then causes the neuron to “fire,” moves the chemical message along to the next synapse. (turned on)
process that the neuron goes through to return to resting potential; in other words, kicking the positive ions back out.
A neuron can have up to 1000 action potentials per second!
A neuron can be in all three states at once along different parts of the axon!
Messages only go one way – from axon to dendrite down the cell to next axon to next dendrite.
Within nervous system, messages only go one way as well, from sensory neurons to CNS or from CNS to motor neurons.
The All or None Law – either the neuron fires or it doesn’t (there is no “kind of,” or “sort of”)
Weirdest Field Trip Ever!
How Do Neurons Communicate?
How Do Neurotransmitters and Other Chemicals Influence Us?
Draw and label...The Synapse
site on the end of a dendrite that accepts a neurotransmitter and locks or unlocks an ion channel
A receptor site is to an ion channel as a lock is to a door. Neurotransmitters are the keys to the lock.
Some NTs fit the receptor site and open the ion channel. Positive ions flood in, causing an action potential. When this happens, we say the NT is excitatory (causes an action potential). The neural message is sent on toward its destination.
Some NTs fit the receptor site and make the ion channel stay closed, causing resting potential. The message does not get sent. When this happens we say the NT is inhibitory.
Excitatory is to Inhibitory as...
…action potential is to resting potential.
…open is to closed.
…waking is to sleeping.
After the release of NTs, the axon “vacuums up” the unused NTs into the axon again.
Some NTs are always excitatory.
Some NTs are always inhibitory.
Some can function in either way, depending on where they are, and what the task is.
The computer-animated version...
The real thing...
Draw and label...Acetylcholine (ACh)
Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)
GABA – always inhibitory, closely linked to anxiety-reduction, maintains resting potential in stress. If GABA drops, anxiety increases.
Alcohol – mimics GABA, acts as an agonist, making the body think there is more GABA, boosts GABA reaction. Alcohol reduces anxiety.
Dopamine – major pleasure NT, drugs, comfort food, sex, etc. Also, linked to movement. High levels = schizophrenia, low levels = Parkinson’s Disease.
Thorazine – anti-psychotic drug, acts as an antagonist, blocking Dopamine from the receptor sites (tricking the body into thinking there is less Dopamine).
L-Dopa – drug for Parkinson’s, acts as an agonist to make the body think there is more Dopamine
mimics the NT and increases whatever potential the NT usually performs, makes the body think there is more of the NT.
blocks the receptor sites and keeps the NT from doing its job, makes the body think there is less of the NT.
NTs are referred to as inhibitory and excitatory, but…
other chemicals (drugs, poisons, etc.) are called agonist and antagonist.
Low levels of this NT are associated with depression.
SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) – Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft, Lexapro, Wellbutrin, etc.
These drugs work a little differently. They block the axon from taking Serotonin back up after the chemical reaction; therefore, more Serotonin stays in the synapse, allowing more bonds to receptor sites. This makes it an agonist.
“endo” meaning within, “orphin” from morphine
Endorphins block pain transmission, but differently than NTs or drugs. They harden the sacs on the axon keeping the NTs from being released.
Addiction to morphine-based painkillers is so difficult because the body stops making its own endorphins when they are coming from elsewhere. After stopping drugs, it takes the body a while to start producing endorphins again, so everything hurts.
The Nervous System
The Endocrine System
The body's primary communication system
The body's other communication system - not as fast, but effects are lasting
- includes glands located throughout the body that secrete hormones
- some hormones chemically identical to NTs
- hormones influence growth, reproduction, metabolism, mood, etc.
Nervous system and endocrine system are companion systems, both controlled by the brain.
Draw and label...Brain Stem and Limbic System
Medulla – basic life support, heart beat, temperature, etc.
Pons – connects medulla to lower brain, implicated in dreaming
Reticular Formation or Reticular Activating System (RAS) – controls arousal
Cerebellum – fine motor movement and coordination
Thalamus – a sensory routing station (Thelma the operator)
Hypothalamus – The Four Fs! (Cell for cell, no part of the brain does more than the hypothalamus.)
Hippocampus – puts new memories into storage (Happy hippos making memories at camp)
Amygdala – emotional center (particularly negative emotions) (Emotional Amy)
Pituitary gland – bridge between the brain and the endocrine system, the master gland, but takes its orders from the hypothalamus
The Cerebral Cortex
controls language expression – located in frontal lobe, left side. Directs muscle movements for speech.
Wernicke’s area: controls language reception – comprehension, usually in left temporal lobe (but if there is damage, may switch locations!)
Angular gyrus: receives visual information and recodes into auditory form - reading.
Jingle all the way!
The words first registered in the visual cortex…
…then were relayed to the angular gyrus to be transformed into auditory code
…then sent to Wernicke’s area for comprehension
…then sent to Broca’s area for speech production
…then sent to the motor cortex to control movement of your lips, tongue, larynx, lungs, etc.
The brain's ability to reorganize and re-assign tasks when one part is damaged
Split Brain Research
90% of humans are right-handed.
Bias for right hand is uniquely human.
Handedness can be observed in utero and immediately after birth.
This leads us to believe handedness is genetic or prenatal.
It is not related to right or left brain dominance.
Video clip from Inside Out, Disk 1: Tools of Study and Brain Structures
Put your pencils down and just listen!
How caffeine works:
Tactile Communication and Neurorehabilitation Lab