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Transcript of Roman Beliefs
Cornelia Zhou Since we're cool kids we decided
to make a Prezi :D (because it's nearly
impossible to make a full video out of
this unit's Cultura... and we're Spatial like
that) Temple to Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Capitoline Hill Jupiter-Zeus
Apollo-Apollo Greco-Roman Gods/Goddesses (with the sacred stone of Terminus, the god of boundaries, in its cella) The worship of Terminus was established on Capitoline Hill in the days of the Etruscan kings, which did not permit it to be relocated to a different site Roman beliefs were steeped in Greek traditions, older agricultural gods, and ever-present spirits (such as Terminus), as well as the acceptance of other deities. "Mystery Religions" from the east gave hope of life after death and required secret initiation
ceremonies. The temple of Isis at Pompeii was rebuilt and
after the earthquake in 62, but the temples of Apollo and Jupiter in the forum
were still incomplete in 79. Domitian rebuilt the Temple of Isis in Rome in
addition to the Temple of Jupiter on the Capitol after they had been destroyed
by fire. ENLARGED Sometimes, Roman authorities did not welcome other religions.
The worship of foreign cults was often banned from Rome (ex: the worship of Bacchus/Liber (Dionysus) during the Republic and the worship of Isis during the rule of Augustus). Mithras/Mithra, the ancient spirit of light, was often worshipped in Rome. Often referred to as Sol invictus Mithras , Mithras became the god of truth and justice,
emphasized loyalty and fraternity, and was
"anti-evil" (the words of wise Publius Vergil/Zhang).
Mithraism came from Persia to the east, and was
appealing to soldiers and communists (fortasse)
because of its values. The initiation into Mithraism included seven grades, which included tests in Mithraea that were created to look like underground caves.
This was to commemorate the most famous of the exploits of Mithras, when he slayed a bull in a Persian cave while wearing a Phrygian (Persian) cap and trousers. Mithraeum Mithraeum The central nave of the ,
which was a shrine built to honor Mithras and provide a place for those practicing Mithraism to worship, had raised benches for the faithful to recline during sacred meals. The Mithraea in Rome are usually not large, but they are often very lavishly decorated. The religion appeals to officers in the army and wealthy businessmen. A picture of Mitras slaying
the bull in a Roman
Mithraeum :D Douglas
MacArthur dfadf Mathraea in the Roman
Empire ROMA! CITIES (ex: Alexandria) Ports in the western Mediterranean Along the Rhine and Danube Hadrian's wall in England (in particular, Judaism and X[Christ]ianity) Most Jews lived across the Tiber River. Most emperors
(ex. Augustus) showed a tolerant attitude towards the Jewish population But, but, but, I don't have a butt :P Tiberius and Claudius expelled Jews from the city because
the Jews apparently were trying to convert others to Judaism Other Eastern Religions Those Roman Geises The Romans often confused Christianity with Judaism.
Claudius expelled Christians from Rome because he thought they were Jews. A Certain Cool Kid Decides to Appear Paul came to Rome to appeal Claudius'
decision in 60 A.D./C.E. Paul, being very SPATIAL Wrote a letter (what's a letter :P) from Rome, saying there were Christians who belonged to "Caesar's household" WHY?
Christians were oft from lower classes
(proletariat must seize the means of production!)
REACTION! (A REVOLUTION!)
Nero, whilst playing a lyre, cast Christians as a scapegoat of the great fire in Rome in 60 A.D./C/E. Then Nero, typically ordered the Christians to be killed
Sporadic Persecutions (ex: under Domitian)
Worst persecution was conducted under Diocletian and Galerius Christians viewedd as a Threat Toleration? What's Toleration? Webster's Dictionary defines Toleration as:
A government policy of permitting forms of
religious belief and worship not officially established Christianity was tolerated under Constantine the Great in 313 AD/CE
by the Edict of Milan Then in 380 AD/CE Theodosius made Christianity
the religion of the STATE (l'etat est moi) STOICISM What do YUE (not you, YUE as in Kai Yue or Caillou) believe?
Stoics believed that a man's aim in life should be "Virtue" (conformity to a standard of right) rather than "Pleasure" (a state of gratification) haha that was my value project for Debate :D Important Stoic Philosophers:
Epictetus- A former Greek and slave
(William Wilberforce :D)
Zeno of Citium- Founder of Stoicism
Seneca the Younger- Roman Statesman,
humorist, advisor, etc.
Marcus Aurelius- Last of the 5 Good
Emperors The $1 Million question: WHAT DO STOICS
DISAPPROVE OF? One-man rule
Political power should not
be passed on from one ruler to next WHAT DO STOICS
APPROVE OF? Republic
Ruler should aim to benefit all his subjects
not just a few TEMPLES Multiple Uses
(sounds rather Asian) Site of Civic Religion (pssht...no duh)
Meeting Place for the Senate (also had to
meet at the inaugurated temple
to take the all important auspices
Offices for Cool magistrates (Quaestors in Temple of Saturn)
Exhibiting Significant treaties and works of art
Storing the Sibylline Books- books "purchased" by LUCIUS TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS
from a sibyl. SPATIAL Ceremonies and Festivals (Feriae) Dance of the Salii in March- changing seasons
Parentalia in Febuary- Deceased Family members
Matronalia in March- Husbands give presents to wives
Vestalia in June- Asses that turned millstones for grain were garlanded and hung with loaves of bread
Saturnalia in December- When Saturn was celebrated with gift giving and parties Ah...so we have returned... TO THE BIG PICTURE
situation Religion played a large role in the life of the Ancient Romans
irregardless what their religion actually was. BIBLIOGRAPHY "Emperor Domitian." The Roman Empire. Web. 26 May 2011. <http://www.roman-empire.net/emperors/domitian-index.html>. "Greek and Roman Gods." MIStupid.com - The Online Knowledge Magazine.
Web. 26 May 2011. . "Sibylline Books (Greek Mythology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Web. 26 May 2011. . "Sibylline Books (Greek Mythology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Web. 26 May 2011. . "Sibylline Books (Greek Mythology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Web. 26 May 2011. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/542702/Sibylline-Books>. MY BRAIN! (what brain :P)