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Chapter 11: National and Reagional Growth ~Section 1: Early Industry and Inventions~ and ~Section 2: Plantations and Slavery Spread~

SoCiAl StUdIeS

Mackenzie O'Brien

on 27 May 2011

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Transcript of Chapter 11: National and Reagional Growth ~Section 1: Early Industry and Inventions~ and ~Section 2: Plantations and Slavery Spread~

Chapter 11: Sections 1 and 2 The War of 1812 changed the economy of the USA forever Samuel Slater: an English textile worker that brought invention ideas to America Industrial Revolution: in late 18th century Britain, factory machines began replacing hand tools and manufacturing replaced farming as the main form of work Section 2: Plantations and Slavery Spread Eli Whitney: man who invented the cotton gin Cotton gin: a machine invented in 1793 that cleaned cotton much faster and far more efficiently than human workers spirituals: a religious folk song Nat Turner: the leader of a slave rebellion taking place in Virginia in 1831 After the War of 1812 ended, the British were coming up with ideas for machines that could save time and make industry more profitable. The British did not want anyone to have their ideas, so immigration to the U.S. or anywhere else was illegal. Samuel Slater came to the U.S.A. illegaly and gave us the ideas for machines. Section 1: Early Industry and Inventions In 1793,Eli Whitney created the cotton engine, or "cotton gin". The cotton gin made the south go on a different development course then the north. Southern life was changed in these ways because of the cotton gin:
1. A vast move westward started because of the need for space and that a different type of cotton could be grown: long-fibered cotton. This cotton was easier to clean.
2. Cotton exprots increased becuase cotton was valuable, so planters grew more of it.
3. Native Americans were driven off land and replaced by cotton plantations.
4. Slaves from the east to planters in the south because of the larger workforce needed. Slavery divided the south. For white southerners:
Those with slaves and those without. For black southerners:
Those who were enslaved and those who were free Slaves relied on Religion for their strength. Sprituals later influenced later American music Slave families were often sold away from each other If a slave family managed to stay together, it was still a struggle for them. Slave marriges weren't considered legal. When slaves tride to raise children, their owners interfeared. Sprirtuals were how slaves expressed their beliefs Because of the horrible treatment of slaves, a lot of rebellions occured. The most famous slave rebellion took place in Virginia on August 21, 1831 It was led by Nat Turner 55 white men, women, and childeren were killed. Some of the followers were captured, 16 were killed, and Nat Turner was hanged. 200 African Americans were killed in retaliation for the 55 white people. Now, free blacks could not own weapons or buy liquor, slaves couldn't have religious services unless a white person was present, and postmasters would no longer deliver anti-slavery publications. The grip of slavery tightened in the South. Tention over slavery between the North and the South increased. In England, the invention of machines allowed unskilled workers, such as children, to make products quickly, such as cloth. factory system: a method of production that brought many workers and machines together under one building A lot of factories were near water, which powered the machines. People swarmed to the cities for factory jobs. They worked on a schedule for set wages, which changed their lives. Their lives weren't always changed for the better though. In the U.S., not everyone wanted to industrialize, but the War of 1812 led them in that direction. Because of the blockade, Americans started making their own goods and investers no longer spent money on trade and shipping. The investors started to help American buisnesses American buissnessmen began starting their own factories in New England The New England area became wealthier because of this. New England was a good place to open a factory because:
Factories needed water-power and New England had a lot of rivers
A lot of people in New England wanted to work in factories
New England had direct access to the ocean Samuel Slater built his Rhode Island Spinning Mill in 1790 Samuel Slater hired eight children, from ages 7 to 12, and paid them low wages. Samuel Slater then started hiring whole families, and this practice spread across Rhode Island, Conneticut, and the southern part of Massachusetts In 1813 Francis Cabot Lowell started a factory in Eastern Massachusetts that spun cotton into yarn and then turned the yarn into cloth. The Lowell mills started hiring farm girls. Lowell Mills: textile mill located in the factory town of Lowell, Massachusetts, founded in 1826. By the 1830's, the mill's profits were falling and the conditions in the mills got worse. After the 1830's, factories ran on steam engines instead of water power like earlier factories, so they could be in a lot of different places. Before 1797, guns were made one at a time by gunsmiths and every gun was different. So, if a gun was damaged,they would have to have a special part made. Eli Whitney came up with the idea of interchangeable parts. Interchangable part: a part that is exactly like another part The interchangable part changed a lot of industries. New supervision was required in factories making the new parts. Steamboats and telegraphs helped with transportation and communication John Deere, a blacksmith, invented the first light-weight plow in 1836. Because of Deere's invention, farmers began moving to the Midwest. The mechanical thresher and reaper helped make farming easier. New techololgies created national unity.
Midwestern farmers fed Northeastern factory workers
Midwestern farmers needed goods from Northeastern factories
Northeastern mills needed cotton from the South Beacause Notheastern factories were growing, they needed more cotton, which led to the groth of slavery.
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