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PERSUASION

AP LANG
by

Ebay Liu

on 3 March 2015

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Transcript of PERSUASION

Persuasion is a style of writing that aims to sway the readers to adopt the author's worldview.

Employment of the modes of persuasion - pathos, logos, and ethos - can create an emotional connection between the reader and author, provide indisputable evidence, and increase the author's credibility.
WHAT IS PERSUASION? HOW DOES PERSUASION OFFER TEXTURE OR MEANING TO AN AUTHOR'S WORK?
P
L
E
THOS
athos
ogos
The Growth of Proofs
RHETORICAL DEVICES

REPETITION
DIDACTIC STATEMENTS
ALLUSIONS
Most natural proof of persuasion
Easiest form of persuasion
Pathos adds meaning because it creates an emotional connection between the author and the audience.

Logos is effective because humans need proof and justification
Logos adds meaning because it makes the author's point indisputable.

Ethos establishes authority and makes the author credible
Ethos offers meaning because it adds legitimacy, knowledge, and morals, making the author's point more believable.

ETHOS
PATHOS
GOOD LOGOS
BAD LOGOS
BAD PATHOS
GOOD ETHOS
BAD ETHOS
GOOD PATHOS
Good pathos creates an emotional connection with the audience
Bad pathos often occurs when
the author shows assumptive ideas that insults the audience
LOGOS
Good logos uses reason and evidence to convince the audience to change views.
Bad logos is characterized by false assumptions, misleading statistics, and/or a lack of citations.
"There is significant evidence that you are
ten times
as likely to crash if you are driving within
15 feet
of the driver in front of you; especially if you are
between the ages of 18 and 30
, are
a male
, and
drink coffee more than twice a day
."
Good ethos establishes authority and morals, which help to change the audience's perspective.
Bad ethos lacks the proper authority and credibility; no trust in the author is established.
"When President Obama was running for reelection, people marched in favor of him, nobody marches in favor of tailgating;
therefore, it must be a bad thing. We all know Obama to be the symbol of the nation.
He endorses good things, and denounces bad things in speeches.
Mr. Obama has never kissed a baby with ‘tailgating’ tattooed on his forehead.
"
"He has
plundered
our seas,
ravaged
our Coasts,
burnt
our towns, and
destroyed
the lives of our people."

"He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to complete the works of
death
,
desolation
and
tyranny
, already begun with circumstances of
cruelty
and
perfidy

scarcely
paralleled in the most
barbarous
ages, and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation."

"He has constrained our fellow citizens taken captive on the high seas to bear arms against their country, to become the
executioners
of their friends and brethren, or to
fall
themselves by their hands."
"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness...
that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends,
it is the
right of the people

to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government.
"
"
We [America] have appealed to their native justice
and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence.
They [the British] too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity.
"

"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by
their

Creator
with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness."
Persuasion defines the purpose of the author, to change the viewpoint of the reader; it uses pathos, logos, ethos, and rhetorical devices to do so.
"
Every
tailgater
you

will
find
will
have a rather impatient personality. They
will
rush through books, retaining
only
half of the story, shove meals down their throat as if they were at a food eating contest, and worst of all: they
will
cruise three to five feet from
your
bumper just to pass
you
and come to a halt at the red light while
you
pull up next to them without the excessive speeding to get there...
Please, there are lives at risk, do not tailgate.
"
REPETITION
When the author uses repetition, it adds emphasis to his or her point. Repetition can reinforce either a positive or negative point. A repetition of word choice can even offend the reader.
DIDACTIC STATEMENTS
ALLUSIONS
Allusions make the author look more knowledgeable, thus increasing authority and credibility.
A didactic style of writing teaches the audience how to act. It calls to action the problems and provides a logical solution for it.
"
We, therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America
, in General Congress, assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name, and by authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of right
ought to be Free and Independent States
; that they are absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and
ought to be totally dissolved
; and that as Free and Independent States,
they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do
. And for the support of this Declaration, with a
firm reliance on the protection of divine providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes and our sacred honor.
"
"We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our separation, and hold them,
as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace friends.
"
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE BY THOMAS JEFFERSON, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, ROGER SHERMAN, JOHN ADAMS, AND ROBERT R. LIVINGSTON
THIS ESSAY IS A LOGICAL FALLACY BY VNUNAN
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE BY THOMAS JEFFERSON, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, ROGER SHERMAN, JOHN ADAMS, AND ROBERT R. LIVINGSTON
THIS ESSAY IS A LOGICAL FALLACY BY VNUNAN
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE BY THOMAS JEFFERSON, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, ROGER SHERMAN, JOHN ADAMS, AND ROBERT R. LIVINGSTON
THIS ESSAY IS A LOGICAL FALLACY BY VNUNAN
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE BY THOMAS JEFFERSON, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, ROGER SHERMAN, JOHN ADAMS, AND ROBERT R. LIVINGSTON
PERSUASION VS. ARGUMENT
Intent
Persuasion wants the audience to agree with and adopt the author's position.

Attitude
Persuasive writers approach readers more aggressively. Persuasive writing is more personal, more passionate, more emotional.

General Technique
Blends facts and emotion in attempt to convince the reader that the writer is “right” and often relies heavily
on opinion.

Intent

Argument's objective is to get the
audience to acknowledge a particular position is valid.

Attitude
Simply to get the reader to consider you have an idea worthy of listening to. The writer shares a conviction, whether the audience agrees or not.

General Technique
Offers the reader relevant reasons, credible facts, and sufficient evidence to honor the writer has a valid and worthy perspective.
Both addresses
a specific side
of an issue.
THESIS
TOPIC SENTENCE
PROOFS OF PERSUASION

PATHOS
LOGOS
ETHOS
Allen Chen
Monying Dominguez
Caroline Hang
Yibei Liu
Denise Tieu
David Tran
PERSUASION
CONCLUSION
He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws of Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our People, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislature.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their acts of pretended legislation:
For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences:
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislature, and declaring themselves invested with Power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.
In every stage of these Oppressions We Have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be ruler of a free People.
Nor have We been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the Protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.
[In the third session of the second continental congress, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia proposed, and John Adams of Massachusetts seconded, a resolution declaring the United Colonies free and independent states; and Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Roger Sherman, and Robert Livingstone were appointed a committee to draw up a declaration of independence. This famous document, composed almost entirely by Jefferson, was adopted unanimously on July 4, 1776.]


When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the reople to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former systems of government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these States. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world.
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE BY THOMAS JEFFERSON, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, ROGER SHERMAN, JOHN ADAMS, AND ROBERT R. LIVINGSTON
Every tailgater you will find will have a rather impatient personality. They will rush through books, retaining only half of the story, shove meals down their throat as if they were at a food eating contest, and worst of all: they will cruise three to five feet from your bumper just to pass you and come to a halt at the red light while you pull up next to them without the excessive speeding to get there. It always seems like you are either tailgating or driving too cautiously. There is significant evidence that you are ten times as likely to crash if you are driving within 15 feet of the driver in front of you; especially if you are between the ages of 18 and 30, are a male, and drink coffee more than twice a day. If you fit the description for a frequent tailgater, please take precautions to avoid precarious situations involving your front bumper and the rear bumper of the driver in front of you.

It is imperative that you do not tailgate to avoid colossal fines as well as the birth of another aggressive driver: the victim of this “tailgation”. Yes, you may think that tailgating will encourage ‘faster’ driving from the person in front of you; however, that is not the case. Tailgating only causes frustration and agony in the driver in front of you. Tailgating sparks rage and anger in the victim, and will certainly lead to other situations on the road, some of which can be deadly. Please, there are lives at risk, do not tailgate.

To understand how tailgating can cause volatile behavior from other drivers, we must first understand the system of checks and balances of the United States government. For the variables, lets set the ‘driver being tailgated’ as the president, and the ‘tailgater’ as Congress. If Congress want to pass a bill that is in direct violation of the president’s basic ideals, the president will veto the bill if it gets passed. ‘Vetoing’ in this situation, is the volatile behavior that brews in the ‘driver being tailgated’. Now that Congress is an enemy in the president’s eyes, any bill that gets passed will be vetoed because the president is enraged. A bill that helps children with disabilities will pass Congress, but will be vetoed by the president. This is an unacceptable situation and can be directly compared to tailgating.

There are valid arguments to the practice of tailgating. But these arguments are only semi-valid and should be ignored because they are not very strong. “I needed to get to work! I work for the mayor, he needs my help filing papers and such.” This is a valid argument; however, the mayor probably has several assistants and does not require this person immediately. To conclude, there are no valid arguments to the practice of tailgating.

Tailgating is simply a bad thing. If it were a good thing, you would hear people walking down the street with endless praise for it. When President Obama was running for reelection, people marched in favor of him, nobody marches in favor of tailgating; therefore, it must be a bad thing. We all know Obama to be the symbol of the nation. He endorses good things, and denounces bad things in speeches. Mr. Obama has never kissed a baby with ‘tailgating’ tattooed on his forehead.
THIS ESSAY IS A LOGICAL FALLACY BY VNUNAN
Full transcript