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Theories and Models
Transcript of Theories and Models
He developed a model for the location of manufacturing establishments.
Theory accounted for the location of a manufacturing plant in terms of the owner's desire to minimize three categories of costs. -The first (most important cost) was transportation - the site must have the lowest possible cost of moving raw materials to the factory and finished products to the market. -The second cost is labor - higher labor costs reduce the margin of profit, so a factory might do better farther from raw materials and markets if cheap labor made up for the added transport costs -The third factor is, (what he called) agglomeration. It is when a large number of enterprises cluster in the same area, as happens in a large industrial city. Agglomeration makes a big city an attractive, even overcoming transport and labor costs. Excess agglomeration leads to high rents, rising wages, circulation problems. Von Thunen's Agricultural Model 1826, Northern Germany. Von Thunen hypothesized that a pattern of rings around the city would develop.There are four rings of agricultural activity surrounding the city. Timber and firewood would be produced for fuel and building materials in the second zone. The third zone consists of extensive fields crops such as grains for bread, since grains last longer than dairy products, they can be located further from the city. Ranching is located in the final ring surrounding the central city. Animals can be raised far from the city because they are self-transporting. Animals can walk to the central city for sale or for butchering. Beyond the fourth ring lies the unoccupied wilderness. Dairying and intensive farming occur in the ring closest to the city. Epidemiologic Transition Model This theory was originally by Abdel Omran in 1971.Omran divided the epidemiological transition of mortality into three phases.
The epidemiological transition occurs when country goes from a developing nation to a developed nation. The developments of modern healthcare reduce infant mortality rates and extends average life expectancy. 1.The Age of Pestilence and Famine: Where mortality is high and fluctuating,with low and variable life expectancy, between 20 and 40 years. 3.The Age of Degenerative and Man-Made Diseases: Mortality continues to decline and eventually approaches stability at a relatively low level. 2.The Age of Receding Pandemics: Where mortality progressively declines. Average life expectancy increases to about 30 to 50 years. Population growth is sustained and begins to be exponential. Core Periphery Model Services, investment and jobs are concentrated in the core Central Business District , but accessible inner city areas may benefit from wealth from the core.
Ex. In some areas there may be a flow of office workers to the inner city looking for low-price lunchtime meals. The core also provides work for inner city residents. The Core-Periphery model helps explain why some inner city areas are prosperious, while others display all the signs of urban poverty. Domino Theory The Domino theory is similar to lining up regular dominoes, by making a small change to one of the dominoes in the row, the entire row will be altered as the change is magnified and passed along. The domino theory builds on this idea, viewing countries as a row of dominoes which could collapse if one is pushed by a political event in a neighboring country. The domino theory is a theory which appeared in American foreign policy analysts during the 1950s and 1960s. According to the theory, nations on the borders of communist nations could be considered under threat, potentially falling like dominoes to communist influence and setting up a situation in which communism would rapidly spread across a region or perhaps even an entire continent. Heartland and Rimland Theories English geographer, Sir Halford Mackinder's theorized that the world was divided into 3 zones, also know as the HeartLand theory. -The Outlying Islands, by which Mackinder actually means the continents of North America, South America, and Australia. -The Offshore Islands, such as the British Isles and the Japanese islands. -The World-Island, consisting of Europe, Asia, and Africa.Together these three interlinked continents are the largest, most populous, and most resource-rich region on earth. In 1942, geostrategist Nicholas J. Spykman combined Mackinder;s and Alfred Thayer Mahan's theories to become the Rimland Theory. The Rimland theory stated that Makinder's Inner Crescent (Rimland), had more resources than Heartland and has more seapower. "Who control the Rimland rule Eurasia;
Who rule Eurasia controls the destinies of the world." "Who rules East Europe commands Heartland;
who rules Heartland commands the World-Island;
who rules the World-Is;and controls the world." Neocolonialism Neocolonialism is used to refer to the idea that nations (that have historically acted as colonizers) may exercise power and control over former colonies. Neocolonialism began in Africa during the mid-20th century, when a few African nations began to achieve independence from European powers. Africans knew that despite the fact that their nations were politically free (they were not legally treated as colonies), many had not achieved full freedom. In some cases, their governments were under the control of former colonial powers (foreign governments pushed for the nomination of specific people to positions of power), and many such nations had an economic dependence on their former colonizers. When they were colonies, many nations were exploited for natural resources. The practice of resource exploitation by foreign powers continues under neocolonialism and some nations encounter resistance when they attempt to nationalize/retake control of their resources. Thomas Malthus (Population) In 1798, Malthus published his theory of population ("An essay on the principle of population"). He argument that we existed in a world of constant pressure towards population growth which was counteracted throughout history by "positive checks" that included "war, famine, and disease".
He stated that food shortages were inevitable because the population would grow faster than food production. Hence, according to this "Malthusian Equation", the population would outstrip available food.
A rise in population would soon be checked by a rise in the death rate. Malthus was a clergyman in the Church of England, and ultimately he argued that this balance was part of the Divine Order of the world . Modernization and Dependency Theories Sustainable Development World System Theory "Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts: - Our Common Future, also known as the Brundtland Report: Organizations become bureaucratic as the division of labor grows more complex and religion declines in public influence. Lastly, cash-driven markets take over as the primary mechanism through which goods and services are exchanged. In the 1950s, the Modernization theory explained how the industrial societies of North America and Western Europe were developed. The theory states that societies develop in fairly predictable stages in which they become more complex. Development depends primarily on the importation of technology as well as a number of other political and social changes believed to come about as a result. For example, modernization involves increased levels of education and the development of mass media, both of which foster democratic political institutions. Transportation and communication become more sophisticated and accessible, populations become more urban and mobile, and the extended family declines in importance as a result. The central argument of this theory is that the world economic system is highly unequal in its distribution of power, resources and places most nations in a dependent position in relation to the industrial powers. Also in the 1950s, the Dependency theory wasused to explain the failure of nonindustrialized (developing) countries to develop economically despite the investments from industrial countries. As eary as the 1970s, Sustainable development was on the lips of many ecologists. Sustainable development refers to the human development in which resources are used to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met by the present,and future generations. Core countries focus on higher skill, capital-intensive production. The countries constantly reinforces their dominance over other countries. The World-system theory refers to the inter-regional and trans-national division of labor, which divides the world into core countries, semi-periphery countries and the periphery countries. At the beginning in the 1970s,Immanuel Wallerstein developed the best-known version of world-systems analysis. The rest of the world focuses on low-skill, labor-intensive production and the extraction of raw materials. Bid-Rent Theory In 1964, William Alonso extended the von Thunen's urban land uses model. Rank Size Rule Views on Globalization Agricultural/Cultural Hearths Agricultural Revolutions Housing Styles Language Trees Universalizing Religions, Ethnic, etc. Primary Economic Activities Primary shapes of countries Residents that live closer to the center travel less and residents that live farther travel more. The property that is closer to the center often cost more than a property that is farther away. The Bid-rents theory states that the closer a property is to the center of a district, the higher the value of the property. A property that is farther away from the center, the lesser the value. It states that, if the population of a town is multiplied by its rank, the sum will equal the population of the highest ranked city. Rank Size Rule or Zipf's Law (even though he didn't invent it), was "invented" in Ex. The 3rd largest city is 1/3 the largest city's population. Green Revolution - New practices allowed farmers to produce more of the same product within the same amount of land. Industrial Revolution- New machines allowed crops to be harvested and planted faster and more efficiently. Shifting Cultivation-Simple farming Primary economic activities involve taking natural resources from the Earth. Mining
Quarrying Examples Agricultural hearth is another way of saying the beginning of agriculture. The hearth of agriculture is considered where the beginning of civilizations settled by rivers or bodies of water for their crops or livestock. Cultural hearth is an area that has an advanced and distinctive set of culture traits, ideas and technologies. Universalizing religions are religions that seek to appeal to all people around the world from different cultures or locations. They also have a prophet that usually has a holiday in honor of their birth.
Ex. Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism Ethnic religions are religions that are bounded to one culture and a general area. Countries that have that one religion usually base their laws off it. Ethnic religions usually have an unknown source and their most religious practices focus on a landscape origin. Most of their religious holidays are based on local climate and agricultural practice,
Ex.Hinduism and Judaism United States China United Kingdom Most houses features one-level living. There may be a full or partial basement. Generally, a garage is attached to the side of the house. The basic feature of Chinese architecture is rectangular-shaped units of space joined together into a whole.The combination of units of space in traditional Chinese architecture abides by balance and symmetry. The Tudor style is very common
in England.They are mostly of the brown and white color, but modern Tudor homes are made of brown and white bricks. Examples Secondary economic activity involves manufacturing. Metal working
construction. Tertiary economic sector is also known as the service industry. Example Restaurants
Tourism Quaternary economic sector consists of intellectual activities. Example Government
Education Poland Thailand South Africa Indonesia Chile Italy Poland is an example of a compact shaped country. A compact shaped state is small and centralized. This type is the easiest to manage, since the government is close to all portions of the state. The shape has the benefits of being easy to govern, communicate, and defend.However, compact states are primarily small and may not have as many natural resources as larger states have. Thailand is an example of a prorupted state. A prorupted state has a long extension, or an extended arm of territory. This protrusion gives the state several advantages, easy access to the coast which can be used to prevent a rival access. South Africa surrounds Lesotho making it a perfect example of a perforated state. A perforated state completely surrounds another. The Lesotho can only be reached by going through South Africa. South African can use this as in advantage by taxing imported and exported goods, or in a hostile situation. Lesotho Since Indonesia is segmented and separated, it is a good example of a fragmented state.A fragmented state that is separated by a physical or human barrier, like oceans, lakes, and mountains. Some problems with a segmented state is that it is difficult to govern, communicate and defend. Chile is a long skinny country making it an elongated state. An elongated shaped state is long and narrow. This type of state has many disadvantages like it is hard to defend, govern. Elongated countries tend to have a variety of landscape making them quite beautiful. An enclave state is like a perforated state (country or part of a country that is surrounded by another), but enclave does not have political affinity to the surrounding state and an enclave does not belong to another country. The Vatican City is an enclave of Rome but has its own government and is independent from Rome and Italy. United States Alaska and Hawaii are exclave to the United States. An exclave is part of a country that is or almost completely separated from the main part of the country. Some troubles with exclave parts are that they are hard to defend and communication. There are mixed views about globalization.
Some are afraid that their culture will disappear among the mixing and fusions of other cultures. Others are excited about the new types of culture being developed. Song: Purification of the City
From:Flower: Original Soundtrack from the Video Game
©2010 Sony Computer Entertainment America, Inc.