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AP Art History Flow Chart

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Eve Thomas

on 7 May 2013

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Transcript of AP Art History Flow Chart

Prehistoric The Lascaux Caves (15,000 - 13,000 BCE) made during Paleolithic times (hunter-gatherer society)
showed importance of animals because they were bigger
mainly predators shown, humans were stick figures
reflected the important role animals played in their migratory lifestyle - they followed the animals to survive Near Eastern Egyptian Aegean Greek Etruscan Roman Early Christian and Jewish Byzantine Islamic Early Medieval Romanesque Gothic Early Renaissance: Northern Europe Early Renaissance: Italy High Renaissance Mannerism Late Renaissance:
Northern Europe and Spain Baroque Rococo Neoclassical Romanticist Late Nineteenth Century Early Twentieth Century Late Twentieth Century and Contemporary World Stonehedge (2100 BCE) Neolithic (farmers, owned livestock)
people had begun to settle in one area instead of moving around
this monument took a long time to build, indicating that the people who built it remained in the same area Stele of Hammurabi (c. 1780 BCE) used the new writing technique of cuniform, the world's first writing system
work includes over 300 written laws on the bottom
one of the earliest law codes ever written Persepolis (c. 500 BCE) a result of the advent of permanent cities
Persia was the largest empire in the world at the time
served as a place for receptions and festivals
built to impress subjects and visitors
included a palace
was a central place for meetings Narmer Palette (3000 - 2920 BCE) made to mark the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt
one side shows two seperate crowns before unification
the back includes the crown of united Egypt Senusret III (c. 1860 BCE) documents the civil unrest and conflict that occurred during the Middle Kingdom of Egypt
realistic, not idealized like Old Kingdom figures
appears depressed and moody
has lines on his face Akhenaton (c. 1353 - 1335 BCE) Akhenaton became the king of Egypt
he completely changed from the traditional style of Egyptian art
more curves, smoother, relaxed, realistic Clycladic Female Figure (c. 2500 BCE) part of the Cycladian culture
looks modern and geometric
feet are too small for it to stand up
found in and around grave sites
possibly influenced by Egyptian art Spring Fresco (c. 1650 BCE) characteristic of the Minoan culture
Minoans lived on the island of Crete
embraced the natural world
led an easy-going lifestyle
one of the first landscape paintings
colorful and happy Lion Gate (c. 1300 BCE) from the Mycenean culture
showed their strength and force
built to defend a city
lived on the mainland and fought more battles
influenced by the Egyptians Kouros (c. 600 BCE) marked the beginning of new techniques in sculpture
figures such as these were used to mark graves
this occurred after the Mycenaean society collapsed
influenced by Egyptian proportions
differences: nude, freestanding, one foot forward
considered Greek Archaic sculpture Spear Bearer (c. 450 - 440 BCE) marks the beginning of new standards for sculpting the human body
made by Polykleitos as an example of his canon of proportions regarding the human figure
considered Greek Classical Sculpture
one arm/leg tense, one relaxed
idealistic body Aphrodite of Knidos (c. 350 - 340 BCE) Athens had just been defeated in the Peloponnesian War
made by Praxiteles
the god looks more human, realistic
figure has sensuous S-curve
Late Classical Style The Parthenon (447 - 438 BCE) built to show the strength and glory of Athens remained even though the Persians destroyed the city
designed by Iktinos and Kallikrates
dedicated to Athena
strong Doric design AP Art History Flow Chart Model of an Etruscan Temple the next development in temple design after the Greeks
drawn from Roman architect Vitruvius' descriptions
columns and capitals are a Greek influence
the Etruscans lived in Italy before the Romans
difference: had sculpture on the roof Capitoline Wolf (c. 500 BCE) story of Romulus and Remus, who were raised by a wolf and later founded the city of Rome
wolf appears thin and fierce
marks the beginning of Rome Veristic Roman Busts (c. 1 BCE) made while Rome was a republic (ruled by a group of men)
very realistic, the face looks extremely old
Romans believed that old age represented wisdom
by making these busts, they celebrated the wisdom of their leaders Augustus of Primaporta (20 CE) sculpted to show that Augustus was a good ruler
very ideal, not realistic
breastplate symbolizes his success in war
pose is that of an orator (speaker)
cupid represents his connection to the gods
form of political propaganda Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus (c. 250 - 260 CE) made during the Late Imperial Period
there was a lot of chaos and confusion in Rome
this sculpture is also chaotic and crowded, with people everywhere
depicted the confusion of battle Old Saint Peter's (c. 320) one of the first Christian churches
built after Christianity was legalized in Rome
built over supposed burial place of St. Peter
columns come from Roman temples
plain exterior, very decorated interior
making a large, beautiful building was a way for Christians to proudly praise God in the open instead of hiding Synagogue of Dura Europos (245 - 256) temple was disguised as a home because Judaism was not allowed in Rome at the time
features scenes from Old Testament stories on the walls
the Jewish people later banned all pictures Hagia Sophia (532 - 537) combined the central and axial church design
exterior plain, interior decorated
includes a dome held up by pendentives
has tons of gold mosaics - a trademark characteristic of Byzantine art
commissioned by Emperor Justinian and Empress Theodora Great Mosque (Eighth - Tenth centuries) built under the Islamic tradition
took inspiration from Greek/Roman temples
had a hypostyle hall for visitors to find their own way to God
includes columns and two levels of arches Chi-Rho-Iota Page from Book of Kells (c. 800) made during the Hiberno-Saxon period
this culture made elaborate pages for the books of the bible
horror vacui - fear of empty space
features initials of Jesus Bayeux Tapestry (1070 - 1080) retells story of William the Conqueror's victory over England at the Battle of Hastings
embroidered by the conquered people
they put their story around the border
clothing and objects reveal a lot about life and customs during the Romanesque period Saint-Denis (1140 - 1144) first building in the Gothic architecture style
replaced an existing smaller church
included ambulatory aisles and niches for pilgrims to view relics without disrupting a service
lots of windows to provide light
had a choir space for more room
built to accommodate the growing number of Catholics and visitors Lamentation from Arena Chapel (1305 - 1306) Florentine painting from the Late Gothic period
figures are in the front of the picture
diagonal lines direct viewer's eye towards the action on the lower left
depicts many emotions
painted in the Arena Chapel, built by Scrovegni to erase the sins of his father Arnolfini Wedding (1434) believed to be a portrait of an engaged or married couple
many symbols throughout the work, very detailed
dog=fidelity, prayerful poses, wife looks pregnant, St. Margaret statue=childbirth
Van Eyck was one of the first artists to use oil paints Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to St. Peter (1482) fresco by Perugino, located in the Sistine Chapel
shows Jesus giving the keys to earth to St. Peter
classical Greek/Roman influences in the background
contrapposto stance, contemporary people, historical scene
represents the power the Catholics held in Rome Creation of Adam (1511 - 1512) painted by Michelangelo, part of the Sistine Chapel ceiling fresco
shows the moment Adam received life from God
God is in the sky, Adam is on earth
shows Renaissance concept of humanism: people are important, made in God's likeness and their ideas and innovations should be praised
demonstrated by Adam and God touching
influenced by Greek Hellenistic art Giacomo della Porta, Il Gesu facade (1575 - 1584) looks like a classical Renaissance cathedral front, but with a twist
columns are engaged, not stand-alone, and they are grouped across the front, instead of being evenly spaced
attention is drawn to the entrance
swirls on the side contradict the straight lines of classical cathedrals
includes blind arches and windows
Return of the Hunters (1565) oil painting by Pieter Bruegel
part of a series depicting the months of the year
strong focus on the landscape
peasants almost seem in the background
they are not individuals, they just represent the social class as a whole
high horizon line to show more of the scene
in the Northern European Renaissance, nature and everyday life was of more value Colonnade of Saint Peter's (1656 - 1657) designed by Bernini
open area that can hold 500,000 people
the two arches of columns are like open arms to welcome visitors to the Catholic church
entire structure looks like a keyhole, like St. Peter's key to the city of Rome
goal of Baroque art and architecture was to use movement and other dramatic elements to draw people's attention to a work of art or building
Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp (1632) Dutch Baroque oil painting by Rembrandt
shows an anatomy lesson
lighting emphasizes the doctor, as well as the cadaver he is using as a model
every person in the work looks different, showing their individuality
the book in the front right provides perspective
influenced by Caravaggio The Breakfast Scene from Marriage a la Mode (1745) one of six in a series by William Hogarth
told the story of an arranged marriage
was a satire of the types of marriages acceptable at the time and the frivolous customs of the rich
the man has another woman's bonnet in his pocket
the woman has gambled her money playing cards
this occurred the morning after their marriage Oath of the Horatii (1784) oil painting by David
teaches a moral lesson (exemplum virtutis)
depicts three brothers who fight against three other brothers
vow to put their city before themselves
commissioned to make the French people obey and follow the government and king
has several classical influences, such as the columns and clothing Third of May 1808 (1814 - 1815) oil painting by Goya
shows innocent Spanish civilians being killed by French soldiers because some of the Spanish people tried to overthrow the French occupation
the Spanish face the viewer, so their humanity and emotions can be seen
the French have their backs to the viewer and appear inhuman
the man in the white shirt looks like Jesus on the cross - he is making a sacrifice to Spain The Gleaners (1857) painted by Millet, part of the Realism movement
shows three poor women picking up the leftover grain
insinuates their nobility because of the hard work they do
very realistic, made the lower classes look important The Rehearsal on Stage (1874) by Degas, part of the Impressionist movement
Impressionists had looser brush strokes and were interested in the effects of light
the larger brush strokes on the ballet dancers' tutus suggest movement and fluidity
the light shines on the dancers, highlighting them as the subject of this composition The Starry Night (1889) by Vincent van Gogh
used shorter, thicker brushstrokes
Post-Impressionists wanted to adapt Impressionism to be more solid and durable
the forms are more recognizable, but they are abstracted based on how the artist sees them Casa Mila (1907) designed by Gaudi, part of the Art Nouveau movement
has a wavy, organic form
resembles the sand and waves of the ocean, with small sand castle structures on the top
Art Nouveau architecture was intended to unify the whole building as one piece of art Shaw Memorial (1897) by Gaudens, considered late 19th century sculpture
commemorates the Civil War in the US
shows the first group of African American soldiers marching into battle
figures look very realistic
there is a symbolic figure of peace above the men
Woman with a Hat (1905) by Matisse in the Fauvist style
the composition of the woman looks normal, but the colors are completely random
the brush strokes appear large and rushed Guernica (1937) Cubist piece by Picasso
his reaction to the Fascists bombing a Spanish town
horse and bull invoke panic and darkness
chaotic composition
black and white to look like a photograph
the composition appears shattered Schröder House (1924) DeStijl architecture by Rietveld
looks like a painting from this period: boxy, straight lines, geometric
included furniture
floor plan of the house was very open
only used primary colors Kaufmann House: "Falling Water" (1936 - 1939) designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, founder of the Prarie Style
stretches out horizontally instead of vertically
is part of the natural environment and waterfall
features straight, long, clean lines Sydney Opera House (1959 - 1972) designed by Joern Utzon
very organic lines and shape
inspired by a peeled orange
vaults represent a ship's sails
cream and white mosaic tiles make the exterior shimmer Marilyn Monroe (1964) Pop Art work by Andy Warhol
uses unnatural colors on her face, making Monroe appear fake
this mask hides her true personality
the physical traits she was known for are emphasized Untitled Film Still #14 (1978) picture of and by Cindy Sherman
Feminist art movement was the result of more women's rights action in the US
she dressed up like stereotypical women characters in movies
commentary on a woman's role in society
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