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Crafting Research Quetions

This work can be cited as Howard, P. (2016). Crafting Research Questions [Prezi]. Retrieved from philhoward.org. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial - Share Alike 4.0 International License.
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Phil Howard

on 14 November 2016

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Transcript of Crafting Research Quetions

Crafting Research Questions
Comparative
Deductive
Deductive arguments offer two or more assertions that lead automatically to a conclusion. Deductive arguments can usually be phrased as brief statements in which the premises lead inexorably to the conclusion.
Humanistic
Qualitative
Comparative
Quantitative
Experimental
Network
Computational

1. Identify an important social problem.
2. Phrase this social problem as a research question.
3. Offer three plausible answers to the question.
Premise: All dogs have four legs,
Premise: Rover is a dog,
Conclusion: Rover has four legs.
Inductive
Inductive reasoning uses a series of observations in order to reach a conclusion, but does not produce certainties. Induction occurs when we gather bits of specific information together and use our own knowledge and experience in order to make an observation about what must be true.
Observation: Rover came to class late this morning.
Observation: Rover’s fur was uncombed.
Prior experience: Rover is very fussy about his fur.

Conclusion: Rover overslept

Four Questions We Can Answer
1. What is this a case of?
(population, domain or area of generalization)

2. Which have more or less, different amounts, or followed one path over another? (description or causal pattern)

3. How did it happen? (sequence with beginning, middle and end)

4. What were they thinking, and why? (motives, culture)

Variables & Measures
A variable is a general feature or aspect that differs from one case to the next. Variables link concepts with specific measures

A measure is a specific implementation of a variable with relevant data
What Is An Analytical Frame?
There are many ways of interpreting everyday life: a novel, an unusual event, an analogy, a slip of the tongue, a misunderstanding.

Analytical Frames
are systematic, detailed sketches of ideas (or social theories) that a researcher develops in order to aid the examination of a specific phenomenon. In effect, an analytic frame articulates an idea in a way that makes it useful in research. The process of analytic framing is primarily but not entirely deductive.

Journalism
Academic Research
How does journalism differ from scholarship?
Testimonial and anecdotal
Short period of fieldwork
Written for general public
Simple causal patterns
Statistical and analogical
Extended fieldwork, method thought out beforehand
Verifiable
Written for expert or concerned audience
Complex causal patterns

1. Identify an important social problem.
2. Phrase this social problem as a research question.
3. Offer three plausible answers to the question.
4. Select a case that will help reveal which plausible answer is most true.
5. Select a few cases, or many similar cases to reveal the comparative context.
6. Then, identify the variables or indicators you would use to measure in each case to support each of the three plausible answers.
7. State two of the plausible causal paths as a testable hypotheses, with phrasing “If X, then Y.”
8. Reverse the causal direction of one of your hypotheses.  Which of the three causal relationships might still support this new hypothesis, and why?
9. Identify which theoretical paradigms this explanation of causality might be consistent with.
1. Identify an important social problem.
2. Phrase this social problem as a research question.
3. Offer three plausible answers to the question.
4. Select a case that will help reveal which plausible answer is most true.
1. Identify an important social problem.
2. Phrase this social problem as a research question.
3. Offer three plausible answers to the question.
4. Select a case that will help reveal which plausible answer is most true.
5. Select a few cases, or many similar cases to reveal the comparative context.
6. Then, identify the variables or indicators you would use to measure in each case to support each of the three plausible answers.
Humanistic
Qualitative
Quantitative
Experimental Computational
Philip N. Howard
Professor
@pnhoward

This work can be cited as Howard, P. (2016). Crafting Research Questions [Prezi]. Retrieved from philhoward.org. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial - Share Alike 4.0 International License.
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