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Autism

By Zoe Blignaut
by

Zoe Blignaut

on 16 January 2013

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Transcript of Autism

Autism Introduction Autism Spectrum Disorder, (ASD) is a range of complex neurodevelopment disorders but is also categorized as a genetic disorder. This type of autism is the most severe form; there are however milder forms known as Asperger Syndrome, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder and Pervasive Developmental Disorder. To break the definition of autism down completely, it is basically a disorder which makes you have an acceptance of fantasy rather than reality, and, severe deficits in social interaction and communication and by abnormal behavior patterns, such as the repetition of specific movements or a tendency to focus on certain objects. If you have ever encountered a person with autism - especially children - you may find they cling to one specific person. This is a result of their behavioral patterns. As well, ASD varies significantly in character, severity and age. It occurs in all ethnic and economic groups, affecting people of all ages. Signs & Symptoms Children and people with ASD may fail to respond to their names and when talked to or adressed, often avoid eye contact with other people. They have difficulty interpreting and understanding what others are thinking or feeling because they can’t comprehend social gestures, such as tone of voice and facial expressions. An example of this is when they will not watch other people’s faces for clues about appropriate behavior to a situation or towards that person. Continuing on, many children with ASD will engage in repetitive movements such as rocking, twirling or self-abusive such as biting or head-banging. Sometimes this can be a side affect as of the disorder, and other times it may be because there is no other way of explaining how they feel to anyone. Also, they tend to start speaking later than other "normal" children and may refer to themselves by name instead of “I” or “me.” For example, people with ASD might say, "Sarah is hungry", instead of "I am hungry". When they are young, autistic kids don’t know how to play with other children. They often will walk alone and keep to themself. In other words, ASD people are very independent and isolated. When a person has autism, the symptoms can be very dominant. They stand out and may be noticed easily. The hallmark trait for most autistic's, is impaired social interaction. As early as infancy, a baby with ASD may be unresponsive to people or focus only on a certain object for long periods of time. In the beginning stages, the child may appear to develop normally, but gradually then become withdrawn and extremely independent. Signs, Sypmtoms
& Effects Signs & Effects Continued... Mode of Inheritance There are many causes of autism, and because there are a lot it makes it harder for scientists and researchers to identify just one cause of it. This disease branches out into many aspects which means studying view in close detail. Most likely, ASD is the cause of both genetics and environment. Researchers have identified a number of genes associated with the disorder; these include different regions of chromosome 7 & 15. Studies of people with ASD have found irregularities in several regions of the brain and can also be due to severe brain damage when young. As well, learnings suggest that people with ASD have abnormal levels of serotonin or other neurotransmitters in the brain. These abnormalities suggest that autism could result from the disruption of normal brain development in early stages caused by defects in genes that control brain growth and that regulate how brain cells communicate with each other. Pictures Video Clip Mode of Inheritance - Pedigree The studies of twin and families strongly suggest that some people have a genetic predisposition (more likely) to autism. Identical twin research show that if one twin is affected there is up to a 90 percent chance the other twin will be affected. In families with one child with ASD, the risk of having a second child with the disorder is approximately 5 percent (a 1 in 20 chance). In some cases, parents and other relatives of a child with ASD show mild impairments in social and communicative skills or engage in repetitive behaviors. Evidence also shows that some emotional disorders, such as a strong bipolar disorder, occur more frequently in the families of people with ASD. Treatments There is no cure for Autism, but therapies and behavioral interventions are designed to help with specific symptoms and can bring about substantial improvement. The ideal treatment plan coordinated therapies and interventions that meet the specific needs of individual people. No two autistic people are alike so doctors and scientists need to take careful care when diagnosing and finding specific cures for each case. There are however educational & behavioral therapies. Therapists use highly structured and intensive skill-oriented training sessions to help children develop better social and language skills. Also, doctors may prescribe medications for treatment of specific autism-related symptoms, such as anxiety, depression or obsessive-compulsive disorder. As well, antipsychotic medications are used to treat severe behavioral problems.
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