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Transcript of Lawrence Kohlberg
1. Preconventional Level
Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment
-obeying the rules is important to avoid punishment
Stage 2: Individualism and Ecxhange
- judge actions based on how the actions serve individual needs 2. Conventional Level
Stage 3: Interpersonal Relationships
- good-boy-good-girl orientation
- living up to social expectations and roles
Stage 4: Maintaining Social Order
- the society as a whole is considered when making judgements 3. Postconventional Morality
Stage 5: Social Contract and Individual Rights
- people begin to account for differing values, opinions, and beliefs of other people
-rules of law important to maintain society, but people have to agree with those mandates
Stage 6: Universal Principles
- people follow internalized principles of justice, even if the conflict with laws and rules
-ethical principles and abstract reasoning After graduating from high school at end of WWII, he volunteered as an engineer on a ship smuggling Jewish refugees from Europe to Palestine through the British blockade. Modified and expanded on Jean Piaget work which only had 2 stages
He based his theory on interviews that he conducted in Chicago with 72 Caucasian male youths, largely lower and middle class.
He later added more diversity to his sample, including delinquents, females, younger children and youth raised in other cultures.
Each of the youth were asked to make moral decisions about “The Dilemma of Heinz”, a story about a fictional and financially strapped man who must make a decision about stealing medication for his dying wife.
Interested in the reasoning that youth used Research: “child as a moral philosopher”
He broke from psychoanalytic traditions that viewed children simply as the recipient of their parents’ moral values and the behaviorist tradition that viewed moral decisions solely as a system of rewards and punishments.
Children’s moral thinking was influenced instead by social relationships and emotions, such as empathy, love, respect and attachment.
Established the use of moral dilemmas to teach children moral reasoning and ethics is a model of instruction and teaching
Established "Just Communities," offering students the chance to participate in a democratic community --> encouraging moral behavior by encouraging students to get involved, present them with moral dilemmas, Influenced Society Examples: Stage 1: I do not say bad words because if I do, mommy will get mad at me.
Stage 2: For a cookie, I will pick up my toys.
Stage 3: I do not eat in class because my teacher does not like it.
Stage 4: I do not talk during a fire drill because that is one of the rules.
Stage 5: I pay taxes because it is the law.
Stage 6: I pay taxes not because it is the law, but because it is the right thing to do. Education: University of Chicago where he earned bachelor's degree in 1 year because scores on admission tests were so high
1958-Doctorate degree in Chicago
1956-1961Yale University Assistant professor of psychology
1961-1962 Center for Advanced Study of Behavioral Science
1962-1967 University of Chicago Associate Professor of Psychology and Human Development
1967-1977 Harvard University as Professor of Education and Social Psychology
Consensus and Controversy; The Meaning and Measurement of Moral Development; Lawrence Kohlberg's Approach to Moral Education; Child Psychology and Childhood Education: A Cognitive and Developmental View Resume Died of a tropical parasite he caught while doing cross-cultural work in Belize. He struggled with physical depression and chronic pain the rest of his life. In January 1987, he requested a day of leave from the Massachusetts hospital and committed suicide by drowning. Death