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River Valley Civilizations

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by

Joseph Gipson

on 5 September 2014

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Transcript of River Valley Civilizations

River Valley Civilizations
EGYPT
3200 B.C.
Mesopotamia
(Modern Day Iraq)
3500 B.C.
"Land between the rivers" (Tigris and Euphrates- modern day Iraq and Syria)

Agriculture- unpredictable river flooding, had to learn irrigation

Polytheistic religion- worship the gods to be rewarded with good harvest
Sumerians
Sumer- city-state in
Mesopotamia region

Achievements- cuneiform (writing system),
12 month calendar, wheel, sailboat,
bronze tools

Code of Hammurabi- earliest written law code,
aimed to ensure justice and protect
the weak~~~~~EYE for an EYE~~~~~~
Gift of the Nile!

Regular flooding with predictable seasons (Unlike Mesopotamia)
Irrigation- ability to get water to crops
Food Source
Waterways for transportation
Egyptian Society
Agriculture society, traded
along Nile River
Pharaoh- absolute ruler, seen as a God
Egyptian Culture
Polytheistic religion with a positive view of gods
Mummification- embalm bodies for the
afterlife

Tombs built for pharaohs to house their
riches

Achievements- pyramids, hieroglyphics, geometry,
365 day calendar
Code of Hammurabi!
195: If a son strikes his father, his hand shall be (cut) off

196: If a (noble) man puts out the eye of another (noble) man, his eye shall be put out

197: If he breaks another (noble) man's bone, his bone shall be broken

198: If he puts out the eye of a (commoner), he shall pay one (silver) mina

? How did the penalty a nobleman faced for putting out the eye of a nobleman or commoner differ?

Egyptian Accomplishments
Medicine:
Embalming (preserving)
Surgical operations

Writing System:
Hieroglyphics

Art:
Pyramids

Math:
Geometry & Astrology
365 Day Calendar
Indus River Valley
Two major cities: Harappa &
Mohenjo Daro

Great urban planners- developed sewers & water systems, built docks &
warehouses for trade

Caste System= 5 rigid social categories the determined a persons' occupation & life

Mysteriously disappeared

Ancient China
Formed around the Huang He (Yellow) River

Agricultural society, more isolated than other civs.

Developed character
writing (still used today)
Ruled by Shang Dynasty 1600-1050 B.C
(China's first ruling family)

Zhou Dynasty~ 1046-256 B.C- Mandate of Heaven (Emperor's power comes from God

Han Dynasty- 206 B.C- 220 A.D.

Ruled with help of powerful Nobles

Cycle of China= New Dynasty- Prosperity $- Decline- Natural Disasters, God Takes back Control, Rebellion- Then New Dynasty
Over 130 pyramids have been discovered in Egypt.
Trade routes were difficult due to what?

Monsoon= seasonal wind with heavy rain



Religion
Hinduism
Reincarnation= the belief that your soul is reborn in a different form after death.

Karma= force generated by a person's actions that determines how you are reborn.


Buddha & Buddhism
"Enlightened one"
8 fold path
Believed that desire was cause of pain and suffering.
Belief in Nirvana/ Heaven
Achievements
Silk became vary valuable throughout the world.
Led to trade from China to Europe by the "Silk Road"
Great Wall of China
Why Build it?
What would be the benefits?
Paper
War and Leaders
Ramses II
"Ramses
the Great"
1279–1213 BC
~reigned for more than 66 years,
~about 200 wives, 100 sons,
&60 daughters.
Hatsheput (First woman Pharaoh
Hykos
Used Chariots to
invaded Egypt &
ruld Egypt for 100 years
The Three Kingdoms
Old Kingdom
~2700-2000 B.C
~Pharaohs seen
as God like
~Built Pyramids
~mummification
Middle Kingdom
~2050-1652 B.C.
~Age of Stability
~Fortresses built for protection
~Pharaoh now seen as shepard of the people (built public works, provide public welfare)
~Drain swampland for new fertile farmland
~Invaded & conquered by the Hykos for 100 years
The New Kingdom
~1567-1085 B.C.
~New empire now most powerful
~Massive wealth
~Took control of Palestine
~28,251 feet
~280 people have summited
K2 since 1954
~Death rate since the 1990s 19.7%
Full transcript