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River Valley Civilizations
Transcript of River Valley Civilizations
(Modern Day Iraq)
"Land between the rivers" (Tigris and Euphrates- modern day Iraq and Syria)
Agriculture- unpredictable river flooding, had to learn irrigation
Polytheistic religion- worship the gods to be rewarded with good harvest
Sumer- city-state in
Achievements- cuneiform (writing system),
12 month calendar, wheel, sailboat,
Code of Hammurabi- earliest written law code,
aimed to ensure justice and protect
the weak~~~~~EYE for an EYE~~~~~~
Gift of the Nile!
Regular flooding with predictable seasons (Unlike Mesopotamia)
Irrigation- ability to get water to crops
Waterways for transportation
Agriculture society, traded
along Nile River
Pharaoh- absolute ruler, seen as a God
Polytheistic religion with a positive view of gods
Mummification- embalm bodies for the
Tombs built for pharaohs to house their
Achievements- pyramids, hieroglyphics, geometry,
365 day calendar
Code of Hammurabi!
195: If a son strikes his father, his hand shall be (cut) off
196: If a (noble) man puts out the eye of another (noble) man, his eye shall be put out
197: If he breaks another (noble) man's bone, his bone shall be broken
198: If he puts out the eye of a (commoner), he shall pay one (silver) mina
? How did the penalty a nobleman faced for putting out the eye of a nobleman or commoner differ?
Geometry & Astrology
365 Day Calendar
Indus River Valley
Two major cities: Harappa &
Great urban planners- developed sewers & water systems, built docks &
warehouses for trade
Caste System= 5 rigid social categories the determined a persons' occupation & life
Formed around the Huang He (Yellow) River
Agricultural society, more isolated than other civs.
writing (still used today)
Ruled by Shang Dynasty 1600-1050 B.C
(China's first ruling family)
Zhou Dynasty~ 1046-256 B.C- Mandate of Heaven (Emperor's power comes from God
Han Dynasty- 206 B.C- 220 A.D.
Ruled with help of powerful Nobles
Cycle of China= New Dynasty- Prosperity $- Decline- Natural Disasters, God Takes back Control, Rebellion- Then New Dynasty
Over 130 pyramids have been discovered in Egypt.
Trade routes were difficult due to what?
Monsoon= seasonal wind with heavy rain
Reincarnation= the belief that your soul is reborn in a different form after death.
Karma= force generated by a person's actions that determines how you are reborn.
Buddha & Buddhism
8 fold path
Believed that desire was cause of pain and suffering.
Belief in Nirvana/ Heaven
Silk became vary valuable throughout the world.
Led to trade from China to Europe by the "Silk Road"
Great Wall of China
Why Build it?
What would be the benefits?
War and Leaders
~reigned for more than 66 years,
~about 200 wives, 100 sons,
Hatsheput (First woman Pharaoh
Used Chariots to
invaded Egypt &
ruld Egypt for 100 years
The Three Kingdoms
as God like
~Age of Stability
~Fortresses built for protection
~Pharaoh now seen as shepard of the people (built public works, provide public welfare)
~Drain swampland for new fertile farmland
~Invaded & conquered by the Hykos for 100 years
The New Kingdom
~New empire now most powerful
~Took control of Palestine
~280 people have summited
K2 since 1954
~Death rate since the 1990s 19.7%