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Social Structure and Gender Structure in the Post Classical Period

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Saira Shahid

on 5 December 2012

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Transcript of Social Structure and Gender Structure in the Post Classical Period

Because the Aztec & Inca were rulers of surrounding
civilizations everyone else followed them =>
little effect on world's society Social Structure Classes stayed stratified (no change)
Slaves ] Separate Need for order
Nobles were dominate & wealthy,
nobles from Aztecs performed elaborate rituals to further
distance themselves from lowerclass =>
Commoners helped keep their wealth & power =>
Slaves worked under nobles for added luxury =>
Ultimately; Nobles kept social structures same Gender Structure On the world's society, there was little to no effect here because
there was such little change in gender roles Little to no change
Women stayed below men
Women - cared for household work (weave, food prep) and could own and inherit property
Men - did the labor & trained for war; usually monogamous No Opportunity
Men were seen higher because they could do physical work which was seen as more important => Resulted in women staying lower Exception was Stateless societies
Women & men = equal
Believed their works put together were complementary to each other => each other was a necessity
There was a ruler and its people
no complex social structure
Stateless societies did not survive and were overruled in the long run Eastern Europe Africa Urban Life Village Life Women Slavery Western Europe Social: Church/Pope
peasants/serfs Sub Saharan Africa
Subordinate to men
Women had close relations with men even after Islam spread to Africa Social: Change over time:
Towns began as fortified walled villages
gradually evolved into larger communities Continuity:
Nuclear Family
Lineage Group Middle East Changes made by coming of Islam:
Well defined upper class, but no hereditary nobility
Merchants recieved more respect than in Europe, India, or China Russia - ruled by Mongols, but changed in
the Late Middle Ages as the Princes of Moscow
came into power

Poland - changed during Late Middle Ages when
lords gained power to elect their kings,
which lessened central power

Byzantine Empire - Orthodox Christianity
with pope in charge Social Structure Gender: Gender: Gender Structure Changes made by coming of Islam:
Quran recognized women as honorable and equal to men
However, women were required to veil themselves - created symbol of male authority
Most women already veiled themselves because of culture Continuity:
Practiced in Africa since ancient times North Africa
Changes made by spread of Islam:
no contact with men not in the family
fancy attire The Americas Works Cited: Pecking Order and Social Life of
Civilizations! "The men get a share of what the parents and relatives leave behind. The women too shall get a share of what the parents and relatives leave behind. Whether it is a small or large inheritance, [the women must get] a definite share...God decrees a will for the benefit of your children; the male gets twice the share of the female...O you who believe, it is not lawful for you to inherit what the women leave behind, against their will. You shall not force them to give up anything you had given them, unless they commit a proven adultery. You shall treat them nicely..."

-Surah an-Nisa (The Quran) Patriarchal structure
- women mostly below men, with a few exceptions where women gained political or military power
- domestic chores in preparation for arranged marriages, where girls married in teens Russia, Poland, Byzantine Empire France, England, Italy, Holy Roman Empire Mesa Verde by the Anazasi Medieval pope Education:
-no formal education other than sewing and cooking from mothers, unless you were an aristocratic nun

Women in Early Middle Ages:
-no independence, remained under male rule -domestic chores; cooking, children

Women in High Middle Ages:
- trade increased with women
participation, therefor gained relative
independence Late Middle Ages:
- Bubonic Plague- feudal system decline
- Great Schism- loss in faith of papal monarchy by people Nuns, educated and known for hospitals Byzantine wedding ring Belle, Sanctus. Prayers for the Sick IV. Digital image. Our Lady's Tears. Blogger, n.d. Web. 2 Dec. 2012. <http://ourladystears.blogspot.com/2009/08/prayers-for-sick-iv.html>.
Carving of Nubian mixed-race slaves in Egypt. Digital image. Anthroscope. N.p., Mar. 2010. Web. 2 Dec. 2012. <http://s1.zetaboards.com/anthroscape/search/3/?c=3&mid=670920&month=3&year=2010>.
Cliff Palace in the Afternoon Light. Digital image. Mesa Verde National Park. Wikitravel, 10 Apr. 2012. Web. 2 Dec. 2012. <http://wikitravel.org/en/Mesa_Verde_National_Park>.
Duiker, William J., and Jackson J. Spielvogel. World History. 5th ed. Boston: Wadsworth, 2007. Print.
Gold Byzantine Wedding Ring-7th Century A.D. Digital image. Tarantula Brooch. InternetStones.com, n.d. Web. 2 Dec. 2012. <http://www.internetstones.com/tarantula-brooch-house-of-hemmerle-stefan-horse-conch-pearl.html>.
Leo Africanus. Digital image. Wikipedia. N.p., 20 Nov. 2012. Web. 29 Nov. 2012. <en.wikipedia.org>.
Leo, Africanus. The History and Description of Africa. N.p.: n.p., 1550. Print.
Magna Carta. Runnymeade: King John, 1215. N. pag. Web. 2 Dec. 2012. <http://www.humanistictexts.org/magna_carta.htm>.
Quran. Digital image. Tunis Vista: Quran Karim. N.p., 2012. Web. 2 Dec. 2012. <http://www.tunisvista.com/Quran/index.html>.
The Quran (Arabic Text with Corresponding English Meanings). Trans. Saheeh International. USA: Abulqasim Publishing House, 1997.
Three Veiled Women. Digital image. Emaj Magazine. N.p., 8 Mar. 2012. Web. 2 Dec. 2012. <http://emajmagazine.com/2012/03/08/saudi-women%E2%80%99s-day/>.
Timurilank. Medieval European Market. Digital image. Storm Within The Empire. Blogger, 25 Sept. 2012. Web. 2 Dec. 2012. <http://dbagora.blogspot.com/2012/09/commerce-and-trade-routes.html>.
Wyck, Thomas. Merchants from Holland and the Middle East Trading. Digital image.Wikipedia. N.p., 29 Aug. 2011. Web. 2 Dec. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Merchants_from_Holland_and_the_Middle_East_trading..jpg>. by: Saira, Meghan, Celina, and Jovan The post-classical civilization social and gender structures of the Americas, Middle East, Africa, Western and Eastern Europe, China, and India underwent change due to natural disasters and political changes, yet some stayed the same because of isolation, extreme religious, or philosophical ideas. Get it, "pecking" order? High Middle Ages:
- trade increased, so merchants rose in value
- Magna Carta written by group of English aristocrats in an attempt to limit royal power
"All merchants may enter or leave England unharmed and without fear, and may stay or travel within it, by land or water, for purposes of trade...." INDIA Women had more rights under Islamic influence
To the Qur’an, men and women were look at as equals.
Women had no rights under Hindu influence
But women in society still were looked upon as inferior to men no matter what influence of religion Gender Roles WOMEN MEN Dominant gender in Islamic influence period
Dominant gender in Hindu influence time period
Stay dominant over women no matter what influence of religion Women were maids of their property and mothered their children always staying indoors, no freedom Men supplied food, money, and necessary items for the family and usually were soldiers or a workingman Social Structure Caste system changed over time into many more divisions - Head of family
- peasants: manual labor (farming)
- nobles: knights
- middle class: merchants "The women know what they are to do, and the men also; and one never meddles with the word of the other. The men make the frames of their canoes, and the women sew the bark with willow withes or similar wood..."
~ Paul Le Jeune 1632 CHINA - Women’s rights began to increase then decreased
> Marriage among same aged men and women
> Upper class women could yield power, some had lovers
> Divorce upon mutual consent
Gender Roles Women Men superior to women slightly
worked to gain money and food supply
Had more rights and ability to get government jobs Gender Roles > Bearer of Sons – patriarchal line
> Advocated confining women – fidelity, chastity, virginity
> Excluded from the Education of Civil Service Exams
> Had no rights Reassertion of Neo- Confucianism Women Men > Men permitted to have premarital sex, concubines, remarry after
> Laws favored Male inheritance Social Structure peasants were on bottom of lower class
land owning aristocrats were middle class
nobles and high government officials were upper class
changes in social structure were caused by emergence of different religions UNDER OTHER RELIGION INFLUENCES BESIDES NEO-CONFUCIANISM
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