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Sociology: Families and Households - key terms

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Rebecca Katherine

on 11 April 2014

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Transcript of Sociology: Families and Households - key terms

Sociology
Families and Households

Key Terms
Did you know?





All the content you have covered in your sessions can be accessed and downloaded from the
VLE!

There you'll find other resources...including a revision guide for this unit!









There will be three short questions requiring:
knowledge about vocabulary, reasons and factors...
The questions are worth 12
marks in total!
Then you can expect to complete:
two essay questions, worth 24 marks,
each...
There are different types (varieties) of families...

Revise these key terms!
The Nuclear Family
A family consisting of an adult male and female with one or more children.


Single/Lone parent family:
A mother or father living without a partner, with their dependent child or children.

*The child must be never married and aged either under 16 or 16 to under 19 and undertaking full-time education.
A family in which one or both partners bring children from a previous relationship.
Extended family:
A family containing relatives in addition to the nuclear family (described as ‘classic’ if they live together).
Do you know the key terms?
Reconstituted family:

Modified
extended family:
A family containing relatives in addition to the nuclear family but not living in the same residence and only partially dependent on each other.

Beanpole Families:
Three or four generations of the same family having regular contact.
Privatised Family:
a nuclear family living
home centered lives, separate from the extended family.
Symmetrical family:
A family where the roles of
the male and female partners are similar.
Matrifocal family:
A female dominated family.
The Exam...
?
Kinship (a family)

Cohabitation:

A group of people who
share a common residence
(or a single person).
Living together as a partnership without being
married.
Household:
Single Person
Household:
Somebody who lives on
their own (a singleton).
Familial Ideology:
The idea that one particular
family is ideal
e.g. the nuclear family.
Golden Age:
Refers to time in the past where the nuclear
family was seen as the norm and people had traditional family values.
Family
Practices:


A system of marriage involving two adults,
one of each sex.


Monogamy:


Serial
M
o
n
o
g
a
m
y
:


A series of marriages one after the other


A system of marriage involving two or more wives or two or more husbands.
Polyg
a
my:

Poly
gyny
:

A system of marriage involving two or more wives.


A system of marriage
involving two or more
husbands.
Poly
andry
:
Empty - Shell
Marriage:
Where a couple stay together but have a loveless
relationship.
George Peter Murdock (1949) Social Structure:
The structure of the family varies from society to society.


The smallest family is the nuclear family and consists of a husband and wife and their immature offspring.

Units larger than the nuclear family are known as the extended family.

Either on its own or as the basic unit within an extended family, Murdock found that the nuclear family was present in every society in his sample.

George Peter Murdock (1949)
Study: Social Structure


Murdock (1949) defined the family as:

'A social group characterized by common residence, economic co-operation and reproduction. It includes adults of both sexes, at least two of whom maintain a socially approved sexual relationship, and one or more children, own or adopted, of the sexually cohabiting adults'.


Murdock (1949) :

"
The nuclear family is a universal human social grouping. Either as the sole prevailing form of the family or as the basic unit from which more complex forms are compounded. It exists as a distinct and strongly functional group in every known society
".

However, this definition is considered controversial!
Can we define the family?
He examined the institution of the family using a sample of 250 societies.

He concluded that the family is universal.




George Peter Murdock (1949)

Study: Social Structure.
The routine actions through which we create our sense of being a family member.
There are different types of marriages...

Do you know the concepts
and their definitions?



Ask yourself:
why are there weaknesses with this definition?
Weaknesses:
There are
SO
many exceptions!
For instance:
Lone/single parent families
Gay couples who have adopted children
Families where a parent works away
Children educated away from home
*Visit the revision guide for more information and examples!!
An alternative (wider) definition:
' A social group of two or more generations, consisting of at
least one adult and his or her child, own or adopted'.
You need to memorise BOTH definitions!
Vertically Extended:
If grandparents/
great - grandparents
are included,
resulting in 3 or
4 generations.
Horizontally extended:
If parents have adult brothers and sisters living with them.
Civil partnerships:
Same sex couples have similar legal rights to married couples.
More
Key Terms:
Conjugal roles:
Segregated Roles:
Expressive Leader/Role:
The female role concerned with motherhood and housework.
Instrumental Leader/Role:
The male role concerned with providing for he family.
Domestic Labour:
work performed in the home, such as childcare and housework.
Division of Labour (Gendered) :

The way in which roles are divided in the family (between males and females).
Gender Socialisation:
The process of learning the
acceptable male or
female role within the
culture of society.
Roles between married partners in the family.

Roles include:

paid employment
housework
childcare
emotion work
decision making
domestic roles in the family are different between the male and female partners.
Dual Burden:
Women have paid work and domestic responsibilities.
Triple Shift/burden:
Women have paid, domestic
and emotion work
responsibilities.
Patriarchy/Patriarchal/
Patriarchal institution:
The idea that the family is male dominated.
Functional Fit:
The beneficial relationship between the economy and the family.
Primary Socialisation:
The first stage of learning the basics of the culture of society.
*Occurs within the family.
Separatism:
A radical Feminist idea that women should
live independently of men.
Maternal Deprivation:
Refers to a child lacking the
emotional support of
their mother.
Dysfunction:
Any negative outcome of
the family for individuals
or society
Any positive outcome of the family for individuals or society.
Function:
Stabilisation of Adult Personalities:
the nuclear family acts as a warm bath for the male worker in the nuclear family.
Unit of consumption:
the family no longer works together but provides for each other.
Unit of production:
the family works together
to provide for each other.
Lifecycle of Diversity:
Refers to how an individual can live in different families during their lifetime.
The infant mortality rate:
Refers to the number of deaths in
a population of infants
under one year of age
per thousand births.
The mortality
or death rate :
The number of people dying per thousand of the
population per year.
Secularisation:
the decline of religion in society.
The Divorce Rate:
The number of divorces per 1000 married people.
Fertility rate:
The number of children born
per woman of childbearing age.
Birth rate:
The number of live births per
1000 of the population.
Net migration:
refers to the difference between the number of people leaving the country and arriving in the country.
Childhood:
A socially defined age status.
Social construction of childhood:
refers to how society creates the meaning of ‘childhood’ in society. It is not a natural or biological stage.
Age Patriarchy:
Refers to how adults have power over children.
Dependency
Ratio:
Difference between the dependent part
of population and those of working age.
Relatives based on
marriage or genes.
Kinship (a family):
Cohabitation?
Household?
Single Person
Household?

Familial
Ideology?

Golden Age?
Family Practices?
M
o
n
o
g
a
m
y
?

Serial
M
o
n
o
g
a
m
y
?
Polygamy?
Poly
gyny
?

Poly
andry?

Empty - Shell Marriage?
Full transcript