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Transcript of Mussolini
Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)
Mussolini was imprisoned for his part in attempting to provoke an insurrection against the war in Libya
Mussolini formally renounced socialism claiming that his paper was for "combatants and producers" instead
Fascist squads become the National Security Volunteer Militia (MVSN aka Blackshirts)
Nationalist Party merges with Fascist because the two parties were very similar in ideology, the Fascist party was actually inspired by the Nationalist party.
Pope Pius XI forces PPI leader Luigi Sturzo to resign because he opposed the Acerbo law, which guaranteed Mussolini a majority in Parliament
Corfu incident occurs, a military and diplomatic international confrontation between Greece and Italy. It started as a boundary dispute between Greece and Albania, which was taken to the League of Nations to be settled. The chairman of the commission assigned to settle the dispute was italian general Enrico Tellini, who was accused of favoring the Albanians and assassinated by the Greeks. In response, Italy gave Greece an ultimatum containing 7 demands of which 4 were accepted. Considering this unacceptable, Mussolini sent troops and occupied the city of Corfu. After about a month a resolution was reached and troops were evacuated.
Lateran Agreements concluded. This was an agreement between The Kingdom of Italy and the Papacy granting sovereignty of the Holy See(the episcopal jurisdiction of the catholic church) over the Vatican City
Fascist Grand Council becomes a state body of the government. This body was created in 1923 as a party body and was moved up in December of 1928
Edmondo Rossoni, who was a fascist Italian laborer commonly called "the Duce of fascist labor" was dismissed.
New law is passed that allowed only men over 21 from Fascist syndicates to vote. Rigged elections begin to occur
Syndicates were divisions of the people into classes based on economic standing. People could only raise issues through there syndicate and the state was the final judge.
Giuseppe Bottai, Mussolini's "partner"(later joined a group to oust Mussolini due to his decisions in WW2), sets up National Council of Corporations (NCC) in order to unify all of the corporations in Italy. Before this, there were 22 Corporations all headed by fascist party members.
The Doctrine of Fascism by Giovanni Gentile and Benito Mussolini is first published in the Enciclopedia Italiana. It was published as a lengthy intro to the Fascism section which was about 37 pages long.
Mussolini became editor of the socialist party's newspaper, Avanti
The Avanti promoted revolutionary violence against the liberal state
Mussolini was involved in the "Red Week" where the socialists took control of small towns and local governments in order to bring about the revolutionary overthrow of the liberal state
Start of World War 1
Mussolini was expelled from the socialist party after his views were changed by the "great drama" of world war one and his colleges said that he was not a true socialist.
Mussolini's newspaper becomes a strong advocate of italian involvement in the war
Mussolini's articles demanding involvement in the war contributes to riots in May
Mussolini was conscripted(not volunteered) to go to war
While in the army, Mussolini reached the rank of corporal
He was discharged out the army after a mortar bomb exploded during a training accident and four of his fellow soldiers were killed, and he spent 6 months in the hospital, where 44 shell fragments were removed from his body.
Mussolini returns to his role of editor at Il Popolo, where he blamed the liberal government for military incompetence, and called for a dictator
Socialist Party increases to 200 thousand members, quadrupling in size
Pope Benedict XV allows formation of the PPI (Italian People's Party)
Mussolini creates Fascist Combat Group
End of World War 1
Wave of Factory occupations in the north,
*Squadristi-Armed squads of italian fascists
Fascists gain 35 seats after alliance with Giolitti is signed.
Giovanni Giolitti was prime minister of Italy 5 times and was a part of the Italian liberal party
Mussolini withdraws his alliance with Giolitti and signs "pact of pacification" with socialist as a temporary truce and outmaneuvers
The Ras were local party bosses and raised provincial armies to attack socialist. Mussolini had no control over the Ras
Mussolini creates National Fascist Party (PNF)
Fascist violence increases, fascist take over Ferrara
Fascists take over other towns, left wing general strike begins, opposing Mussolini's power grab in the March on Rome. The strike ended later that year without success.
March on Rome takes place in an attempt to oust the prime minister Luigi Facta and assume the italian government, restore nationalist pride, restart the economy, increase productivity with labor controls, and impose law and order.
King Victor Emmanuel III appoints Mussolini to become Prime Minister of Italy, Mussolini is now given emergency powers for one year
Fascist Grand Council is established
Mussolini announces the "battle over the southern problem" and promises to build over a thousand new villages in Sicily and the south
Ceka is created by Giovanni Marinelli, who modeled it after the Soviet Cheka. Ceka quickly established itself as a terrorist organization, they were behind the assassination of Giacomo Matteotti, a prominent member of the opposition of Fascism
Fascist win majority in general election
Mussolini to become Dictator
Mussolini announces Dictatorship
Roberto Farinacci becomes Secretary of the Fascist Party in Mussolini's place and begins purge of the more radical members of the Fascist Party. Farinacci was nicknamed the "Castor Oil Man" because he would make the Opposition of the fascist party swallow Castor Oil, which he called the golden nectar of nausea.
New wave of squadristi violence towards the left wing
Locarno Treaty signed by Italy. The Locarno Treaty was a non aggression pact between Germany, France, Belgium, The United Kingdom, and Italy. It was seen as the key factor in improving diplomatic relations between European countries after WW1.
Press control increased by Mussolini
Central government control over local government established, meetings of opposite parties banned
Mussolini gains power to issue decrees without parliamentary approval
New court is established to deal with political offenses
Fascist Government authorized emergency powers which resulted in the arrest of multiple anti-fascists, including Antonio Gramsci, a founding member of the Italian Communist Party.
Mussolini forms secret police known as OVRA (Organization for Vigilance and Reppression of Anti-Fascism) which is similar to the Gestapo in Germany. They were assigned to stop any anti fascist activity. Around 5000 agents infiltrated almost every aspect of Italian life.
Charter of Labor was enacted and was one of the main pieces of legislation Mussolini, introduced in his attempts to modernize the Italian economy. It declared private enterprise to be the most efficient so that wealthy industrialists would support the fascist government.
Institute of Industrial Reconstruction, a public holding company designed to restructure and finance banks and companies that went bankrupt, is established by Mussolini.
Italy and the Stresa Front (Great Britain and France) opposes Hitlers attempt to Anschluss Austria. Anschluss would result in Germany annexing Austria.
Accords with France signed giving Italy control over Abyssinia in return for the possibility of support against the Germans(which didn't happen). Italy wanted control of Abyssinia to deal with the current crisis happening in that region. Still sore from defeat in the late 1800's(when Italy tried to invade and take over Abyssinia and was defeated), Fascist Italy signed a friendly agreement with Abyssinia in 1928 with an invasion already planned. It wasn't until late 1934-1935 that Mussolini accused Abyssinia of being aggressive and attacked. The Abyssinians stood no chance against the advanced weaponry of Italy. The capital fell in 1936 and the Italian King, Victor Emmanuel, was put in power. The League of Nations response was less than effective but a resolution was eventually reached through the Hoare-Laval Plan(Created by Britain and France), where Italy received some territory in Abyssinia, but had to end the dispute.
Stresa Front formed with Britain and France. The agreement was signed to attempt to reaffirm the Lecarno Treaties, but the vague terms of the agreement causes it to be seen as a failure.
Italy leaves League of Nations.
Conquest of Abyssinia completed. The Italians now occupied Ethiopia
Italy decides to join Hitler in helping nationalists in Spanish Civil War. Italy and Germany joined the nationalists due to their anti communist beliefs.
Rome-Berlin Axis formed with Nazi Germany.
Anti-Comintern Pact signed between Germany and Japan, Italy did not join until the revision in 1941. The pact was designed to stop communism from spreading.
Mussolini replaces chamber of deputies with chamber of fasci and corporations, a lower level legislation branch.
German Anschluss of Austria.
Manifesto of Race issued, stripping Italian Jews of most rights. Also shows the amount of influence Hitler had over Mussolini.
Munich conference takes place to discuss the appeasement of Hitler by letting him take sections of Czechoslovakia which were called the Sudetenland
Mussolini orders annexation of Albania. 100,000 Italian troops were sent to invade Albania because Mussolini wanted it for Strategic purposes.
Pact of Steel with Germany signed. This created an alliance against Britain and France
Italy enters WWII
The Italian navy was defeated in the Battle of Taranto by a British air raid.
Italy was defeated by Britain in naval battle at Matapan.
Most of Italy's East African colonies lost.
Italy declares war on USA
Wave of anti-fascist strikes takes place.
Allies invade Sicily and bomb Rome; Mussolini dismissed by king.
Mussolini rescued by Germans; forms Sal`o Republic in North Italy.
German troops withdrawn; war in Italy ends.
Mussolini executed in Giulini where his body was hung on display for the townspeople to mangle and throw garbage on.