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Transcript of Cells
Cells are the smallest units of life
All cells come from Pre-existing cells 2.1.2Discuss the evidence for the cell theory First principle- 2.1.3 State the unicellular organisms carry out all the functions of life Metabolism
nutrition 2.1.5 Calculate the linear magnification of drawing and the actual size of specimens in images of known magnification
Magnification=size of image/size of specimen
I/A x M 2.1.6 Explain the importance of the surface area to volume ration as a factor limiting cell size Small cells work most efficiently
Cells with more surface area per unit volume move materials in and out faster for each unit of volume
rate of heat, waste production, and resource consumption depend on its volume
Bigger the volume the more trouble a cell has to rid of waste and move materials
larger cells have relatively less surface area to bring in the materials than small cells 2.1.9 State that stem cells retain the capacity to divide and have the ability to differentiate along different pathways 3.3.2 Annotate the diagram with the functions of each named structure Nucleus: Contains DNA in the form of chromosomes
SER: Synthesis of lipids, phospholipids and steroids; regulation of calcium concentration; detoxification of poison and drugs
RER: Involved in protein synthesis
Ribosomes: Involved in protein synthesis
Mitochondria: site of cell respiration
Golgi apparatus: Modifying, sorting and packaging macromolecules for cell secretion (exocytosis) or use in the cell
Lysosome: Contains hydrolizing enyzmes that break down waste material and cellular debris(absent in plants)
Plasma Membrane: Controls the movements of substances in and out of the cell
Cytoplasm: Cite of chemical reactions
Centrioles: Help for cell division(absent in higher plant cells) 2.3.3 Identify structures from 2.3.1 in electron micrographs of liver cells 2.3.4 compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells 2.3.5 State Three differences between plant and animal cells Plant 2.3.6 Outline two roles of extracellular components Strengthens plasma membrane
Allows attatchment between adjacent cells
Allows for cell-to-cell interaction (cell action and altering gene expression)
Directs stem cells to differentiate
Cell migration and movement 2.4.1 Draw and label a diagram to show the structure of a membrane 2.4.2 Explain how the hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties of phospholipids help to maintain the structure of cell membranes 2.4.3 List the functions of membrane proteins 2.3.1Draw and Label a diagram of the ultrastructure of a liver cell as an example of an animal cell 2.4.4 Define diffusion and osmosis 2.4.5 Explain passive transport across membranes by simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion 2.4.6 Explain the role of protein pumps and ATP in active transport across membranes 2.4.7 Explain how vesicles are used to transport materials within a cell between the rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and plasma membrane 2.4.8 Describe how the fluidity of the membrane allows it to change shape, break and re-form during endocytosis and exocytosis Ribosomes Centrosomes Eukaryotic cells (more than 10 micrometres) DNA with proteins as chromosomes/chromatin Internal compartmentalization present to form organelles(Euk) 80s ribosomes(Euk) Mitochondria present(Euk) DNA enclosed with nuclear envelope (Euk) Prokaryotic cells (less than 10 micrometers) DNA in a ring form without protein (Pro) No internal compartmentilzation to form organelles (Pro) 70s ribosomes (Pro) No mitochondria (Pro) DNA free in the cytoplasm (Pro) Comparison of plant and animal cells Exterior of cell includes cell wall w/ plasma membrane Exterior contains plasma membrane ,no cell wall Animals Chloroplasts Vacuoles in center Store carbohydrates as starch No centrioles within a centrosome area Cell wall makes a fixed angular shape No chloroplasts No vacuoles Stores carbohydrates as glycogen No cell wall makes cell flexible & possibly rounded shape Contain Centrioles within a centrosome area Have mitochondria producing ATP The 3 carbon compound called glycerol If water is present hydro regions always align
fatty acid tails do not attract one another(flexible)
Allows for endocytosis
Water loving/water hating
cholesterol(membrane function at wide range of temps)
Proteins makes structure hormone binding sites
enzymatic action (groups make a metabolic pathway)
cell-to-cell communication(attatch molecules of carbohydrates for labels)
channels for passive transport
pumps for active transport Diffusion: type of passive transport when particles from high move to a region of low concentration. Until an equilibrium is reached Osmosis: Passive transport of only water molecules across a partially permeable membrane Difference of solute concentrations on sides of membrane( hypo-osmotic, hyper-osmotic) (think osmosis jones) Membrane is semi-permeable
Region of high to low until equil.
Simple diffusion goes through bilayer
Facilitated diffusion involves non-channel proteins carriers for help
Lipid soluble molecules will pass through bilayer
Hydrophilic and charged particles will use facilitated diffusion
Osmosis is passive and pass through from hypo-osmotic to hyper-osmotic Substances small in size and non-polar move through membrane easily
Subst. that are large, polar or both move against concentration gradient with help of ATP
Animal cells have high concentration of potassium ions in cell high cont. of sodium ions outside of cell
They maintain this with active transport involving a protein (think clubbin hard)
1. Intracellular sodium ions bind to specific protein
2. binding causes phosphorylation by ATP
3. Causes protein to open up on extracellualular. Release of ADP causes release of ions. Phosphate group left over
4. 2 extracellular potassium ions bind to opened extracellular protein in different region
5. Release of phosphate group returns protein to original shape and K+ into intracellular Endocytosis/ Exocytosis
Steps of exocytosis
1. Protein produced by ribosomes of RER enters lume of ER
2. Protein exits and enters cis side of Golgi apparatus with help of a vesicle
3. Protein is modified and exits trans face inside a vesicle
4. Vesicle moves and fuses with plasma membrane and secretes contents Endocytosis pulling the plasma membrane inwards for pinching off of vesicle for transport of material anywhere in cell a few years later ... Second principle- The second principle continues to gain support today ,as we have not been able to find any living entity that is not made of at least one cell. Third Principle-
Louis Pasteur (1860) 2.1.4 Compare the relative sizes of the molecules,cell membrane thickness ,viruses,bacteria,organelles and cells,using the appropriate SI unit 2.1.8 Explain that cells in multicellular organisms differentiate to carry out specialized functions by expressing some of their genes but not others. One cell divides into many ,resulting cells go through a differentiation process to produce all the required cell types that are necessary for the well-being of the organism.
Differentiation depends on gene expression which is regulated during transcription. Cells 100 micrometers
Organelles 10 micrometers
bacteria 1 micrometer
viruses 100 nanometers
membranes 10 nanometers
molecules 1 nanometer 2.1.7 State that multicelullar organs show emergent properties Need to know: The diameter of the microscope's field of vision
size of specimen
MUST be the same units 2.1.10 Outline one therapeutic use of stem cells Cell Membrane is extremely fluid
Changes shape and allows vesicle fusion
Expels contents and reshapes
Pulls membrane in and pinches vesicles off
carries contents anywhere in cell 2.2.4 State that prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission 2.2.3 structures from 2.2.1 in electron micrographs of E.coli 2.2.2 Annotate the diagram with the functions of each named structure 2.2.1 Draw and label a diagram of the ultrastructure of Escherichia coli as an example of a prokaryote vacuoles Who wants to be a millionaire? 15 $1 million
1 $100 Therapeutic use of stem cells-Bone marrow transplant . Similarities between prokayrotic and Eukaryotic cells Some sort of outside boundary that involves a plasma membrane
Carry out functions of life
DNA is present What is the size of a bacteria?
a. 100 micrometres b. 1 micrometre
c. 10 micrometres d. 100 nanometres Which is not a function of life for a cell?
a. metabolism b.reproduction
c. response d. none of the above Which of these diseases have stem cells been proven to heal in humans?
a. parkinsons b. alzheimers
c. diabetes d. leukaemia Which of the following is not true?
a. Cells reproduce at a very rapid rate b. Cells do not have the ability to produce certain types of cells
c. Nerve and muscle cells cannot d.All organisms start of as a single cell
reproduce A prokaryotic cell contains which of the following?
a.mitochondria b. lysosomes
c. nuclear membrane d. cell wall Where does the vesicle go after coming from the ER during exocytosis?
a. trans side of GA b. Cis side of GA
c. cristernae of GA d. The plasma membrane Draw a model of a phospholipid (not the structure of a membrane) List the functions of membrane proteins (at least 3) Where do molecules of different sizes and charges pass through in the plasma membrane during passive & active transport? Explain how vesicles are used to transport materials within a cell between the rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and plasma membrane, Winners??!!! Cells ----> tissues
organs----> organ systems
organ systems---> multicellular organisms
ex. lungs 1.DNA is copied,two daughters chromosomes become attached to different regions on the plasma membrane
2.cell divides into two identical daughter cells
Process includes elongation of the cell and partitioning of the newly produced DNA by FtsZ(Microtubule-like fibers made of protein)