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World War I
Transcript of World War I
WAR IS DECLARED!
Confidence bestowed by Germany led Austria-Hungary to deliver an ultimatum to the Serbia government. Their demands were not met and war was announced July 28th.
The technology of industrialization gave rise to a new kind of warfare. With the amount of allied forces at the start of World War I, the entire continent was forced into the conflict. The supply and demand of the war reach even further, and eventually led to the involvement of the United States in the Great War.
Saturday, August 1, 1914
Vol I, No. 1
ARE ALLIES DESTROYING EUROPE?
ALLIES VERSUS CENTRAL POWERS
Alliance formed between England, France, & Russia
WORLD WAR I
On June 28, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand, nephew to Emperor Franz Josef and heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, was murdered. The Archduke and his wife Sophie were gunned down in the streets of Sarajevo, Bosnia. A terrorist group named Black Hand had ties to the attack, fueled by anger that had risen over the annexation of Serbia by Austria-Hungary. The main culprit behind the vicious attack was a Serbian nationalist named Gavrilo Princip. Austria-Hungary blamed the Serbian government, and moved to attack with assurances from their German allies.
-Woodrow Wilson, April 2, 1917
AMERICA ENTERS WORLD WAR I
LIFE IN THE TRENCHES
THE TOTAL WAR
Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie. Their deaths set in motion the events to start WWI.
GREAT BATTLES, GREAT LOSSES
OTHER NATIONS IN WWI
WAR IS OVER!
TREATY OF VERSAILLES SIGNED
WAR AND PEACE
ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERDINAND ASSASSINATED
Edgar, Robert R. "Chapter 27: World War I and Its Economic and Political Consequences." Civilizations Past & Present. 12th ed. Vol. II. New York: Pearson/Longman, 2008. 822-59. Print.
Ellis, Elisabeth Gaynor, and Anthony Esler. "World War I and the Russian Revolution" Prentice Hall World History: The Modern Era. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. 454-477. Web.
"Fast Facts - World War One: Trench Life." YouTube. YouTube, 30 June 2014. Web. 24 Feb. 2015. <
“First World War erupts in Europe.” 2015. The History Channel website. Feb 24 2015 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/first-world-war-erupts-in-europe.
"The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th Century." PBS. PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. Web. 25 Feb. 2015. <http://www.pbs.org/greatwar/>.
"The Most Famous Poster."American Treasures of the Library of Congress. Library of Congress. Web. 24 Feb. 2015. <http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trm015.html>.
Taylor, Alan. "World War I in Photos." The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 27 Apr. 2014. Web. 26 Feb. 2015. <http://www.theatlantic.com/static/infocus/wwi/>.
“World War I Ends.” 2015. The History Channel website. Feb 25 2015, 4:53 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/world-war-i-comes-to-an-end.
"World War I History." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 1 Jan. 2009. Web. 23 Feb. 2015. <http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-i/world-war-i-history>.
("World War I History")
Many countries entered the war believing the battle would be swift. After years of bloody battles, the desire for peace was widespread. However, peace was unattainable.
To encourage soldiers & civilians alike, propaganda was used extensively in WW1.
The famous poster of “Uncle Sam” was originally published during this time, in July of 1916. Over four million copies of the poster were printed as the United States began sending troops into war (“The Most Famous Poster”).
This included posters & campaigns encouraging citizens to increase their hatred & violence towards the enemy.
The sense of wrongdoing by their enemy gave rise to high values of nationalism. In turn, soldiers were lead to believe they fought with divine purpose.
I want YOU for U.S Army.
-James Montgomery "Uncle Sam", July 6, 1916
Military technology seen in WWI included submarines, tanks, and airplanes. ("World War I History")
THE BATTLE OF THE SOMME
Near the Somme River in France
July 1 - November 1, 1916
One of the first main offense attacks, it was used to distract troops from Verdun.
One of the costliest battles in the Great War. Over 1.5 millions lives were lost.
Both sides dug trenches , although the Allies did not plan properly on how to penetrate the German defenses.
LIFE BACK HOME
CAUSES OF WWI
Following the Archduke's death, the Austria-Hungary foreign minister Count Leopold von Berchtold believed the anti-Austrian movement coming from the Serbs had to be stopped.
Germany chose to defend their only “reliable” ally by offering a blank check to back any combat efforts.
There were four important causes for WWI and they can be simplified using the mnemonic MAIN.
– Many of the major powers believed in competing for larger armies. European nations such as France & Germany were involved in an “arms race” to develop better armies & navies.
– Formed originally to discourage war & promote peace, alliances ended up drawing more countries into the conflict between Austria-Hungary & Serbia.
- European nations were building up national wealth & influence by owning colonies. Conflicts arose often though, due to high amounts of rivalry for land
– Countries all though they were superior to each other. Many populations such as the Serbians, Czechs, and Bosnians wanted their own independence from foreign rule.
Images: ("World War I in Photos")
“It is impossible to give a true accounting of the costs of any war because there is no way to calculate the contributions that might have been made by the individuals killed in battle.”
The damage and repercussions from War World I led almost directly to World War II, to be declared twenty years after the end of The Great War.
Financially, the war cost between $250 billion and $300 billion in early 1920’s currency. Many lives were lost in battle including almost 2 million Germans, 1.5 million French, nearly 1 million English, 500,000 Italians, and 1.2 million Austro-Hungarians.
President Wilson asked the senate to declare war, and two days later the House of Representatives followed suite. America officially enter WW1 on April 6, 1917.
When WWI was first announced, President Woodrow Wilson pledged to keep the United States neutral.
However trade between the U.S & Britain plus attacks from German U-boats led the U.S to enter the war.
Sending thousands of American soldiers to France was considered a turning point in the war and a critical part of the Allies’ victory.
A war of attrition was carried out in the thousands of miles of trenches that were dug during WWI. Both the Allies and Central Powers used trenches and the space in between each was called ‘no man’s land’, often filled with barbed wire to “slow any rapid advances by the enemy.” (“The Trenches: Symbol of Stalemate”).
As seen in the video from Auckland Museum, conditions in the trenches were often dirty and wet. This caused disease and the rapid spread of lice amongst soldiers.
, and the
Patriotism was high back at the home front
Women went to work in factories, replacing the men who had left to fight in war. Many of the women worked in manufacturing weapons.
Rationing of supplies and food was instituted to ensure that soldiers would have necessary items.
Governments took further control of civil liberties, outlawing strikes and controlling foreign trade. Propaganda was used to rally unquestioned support for the war effort. Those who opposed the war were often thrown in prison.
The Allies also demanded Germany hand over most of its merchant fleet, construct new ships for the Allies, and greatly reduce the size of its army.
The Treaty had many negative effects on Germany, eventually leading to mass inflation and financial depression due to the repayments.
The Treaty of Versailles originated in peace conferences and negotiations following the war. The treaty assigned blame for the war with Germany and demanded reparations be made from Germany to cover the costs of war.
FIRST BATTLE OF MARNE
BATTLE OF GALLIPOLI
BATTLE OF VERDUN
One of the largest battles during WWI, fought in northern France
"At 11 o'clock in the morning of the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918, the First World War--known at the time as the Great War--comes to an end." ("World War 1 Ends")
Remembrance Day Memorial ("World War I History")
Image 1 ("World War I History") Image 2 ("World War I in Photos")
Images ("World War I in Photos")
Allied Troops from many nations including: Vietnam, Tunisia, Senegal, Sudan, Russia, America, Portugal, and England ("World War I in Photos")
Signing of the Treaty by the Great Powers. Germany was not invited to participate in the peace talks. ("World War I History")
After four years of bloody battles, WW1 came to an end.
An armistice was signed at the end of October 1918, followed by Austria-Hungary days later.
Around the world, the declaration ending the war was met with celebration.
Although the armistice was signed earlier, the agreement dictated fighting along the Western front should stop precisely at 11 AM on November 11, 1918.
Wilhem II, Germany
George V, Britain
Nicholas II, Russia
Paul von Hindenburg, Germany
Allies had larger numbers & a greater control of trade routes.
Central Powers had the advantage of being able to move troops & supplies as most of the allies bordered each other.
Since many European countries had separate colonies, they also became involved and the Great War truly became a world wide conflict.
Some nations such as Luxembourg, Albania, and the Netherlands chose to stay neutral during the war.
Celebrations in America after the armistice was announced. ("World War I in Photos")
French Soldiers, likely after the Battle of the Somme. ("World War I in Photos.")
FEB. 21 1916
Fought in France
around a defense fortress
Lasting 10 months, it was the longest single battle in World War I
Launched by the Germans to weaken the French
Ended with German troops retreating to original positions
Fought in France
at the outskirts of Paris
First use of automotive transport and radio intercept in war
Allies succeeded in stopping Germany from overtaking Paris
Afterward, Germany did not retreat fully & trench warfare ensued
Fought at the Gallipoli peninsula in the Ottoman Empire
Began with a naval attack from Britain & France followed by a land attack
Allies attempted to control sea route between Russia & Europe
Ended as Allies retreated, suffering losses & illnesses from unsanitary conditions
Images ("World War I in Photos")
"Neither side would back down, and each had allies ready to come to its aid." -Civilizations Past & Present
An overview of allies and battles in Europe during World War I. ("World War I and the Russian Revolution")
European alliances were started to deter fighting, unfortunately they had the opposite effect
Many believed forming alliances would create combinations powerful enough that no one dare attack, due to the size & strength
The "Great Powers" of Europe: Austria-Hungary, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, & Russia all signed treaties
Because all the major powers were connected by treaties & alliances, conflicts between two countries quickly involved other nations protecting their interest (alliances)
Treaty of London:
Treaty protecting Belgium as a neutral country
Alliance formed between Austria-Hungary, Germany & Italy