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ICT Project: Audience Response System
Transcript of ICT Project: Audience Response System
Systems? Audience response systems, commonly known as clickers, are an interactive, hand-held device which gathers information from an audience. The system gathers lots of information simultaneously and can present the responses in a variety of ways such as graphs, charts and percentages. ‘The plenary remains the weakest element of lessons, its impact often reduced by poor time management. There is more to plenaries than asking pupils what they have done or learned, and “show and tell” sessions rarely engage the interest of other pupils.’
(Ofsted, 2000, p.10) 1.The use of ARS can cause students to become distracted. Children, if working alone with a device per person, could become distracted by others and therefore not fully engaged in the task at hand. The device must be supported with a stimulating PowerPoint or question sheet, and motivation and healthy competition can help to engage pupils.
2.It cannot be used in place for assessment. Formative assessment when looking at plenary activities can be used for planning, however cannot be counted on, as interaction between individuals can occur; including the copying of neighbours or more able others. Children may also guess. With a multiple choice answer, this needs to be taken into consideration as children have, for example, a 1 out of 4 chance to get the question correct. This relates back to encouragement and stimulus.
3.Failure to explain the task properly can seriously affect the use of ARS. Children can become easily confused and therefore loose engagement. This makes the task ineffective. Ensuring learning objectives and a
step by step explanation is carried out at the beginning of use. How can Audience Response
Systems be used in school? Plenary Activities/Starters Informative Assessments Group Activities Main Body of Learning Evaluation For Fun Activities The use of Audience Response Systems within a Primary Classroom means that the benefits of the plenary can be completed to their full capacity. According to Ofsted (2003 p.27) effective plenary sessions show, careful revisiting of learning objectives and summary assessments of what pupils have learnt. Audience Response Systems can be used to create quick-fire questions related to the topic of learning or recapping upon previous topics. They can be used individually or in groups - influencing group debates and social interactions. Informative assessments can be carried out on the results displayed as an anonymous majority understanding rather than just picking out individuals. ARS can be used as a final activity to see an overall understanding of the Learning Objective for the teacher to then be able to see if students require additional support in certain topic areas. Therefore teachers can then evaluate how well a lesson has gone. Teachers must not think of clickers as a testing device, rather than a device to inform learning and formative assessment. How they work Each member of the audience is given a hand held device that has four buttons on it that correspond to an answer of a question. The questions are usually displayed on a large projector screen/ interactive whiteboard and there is a set amount of time to then give a response. The responses can then be displayed in a variety of ways.. Group
activities/discussion A device can be shared within a group so that they have discussions between each other to come to a logical conclusion. Teachers can implicate debates within the class by including questions that have more than one answer, and inviting the children to give their opinions and evidence for them. Also, by making deliberate mistakes the teacher can influence discussion and pull out teaching points of misconceptions. Builds group interactions and social understandings, Develops other skills that aren't just subject knowledge. When children are unable to solve a problem they will often turn to a more knowledgeable other in the group. Doing so they use language, this is social and interpersonal when language and thought come together. (Vygotsky, 1978:p. 86) Curriculum Clicker’s are a cross curricular resource. They can be integrated into all areas of the National Curriculum and the EYFS framework. Understanding the world involves guiding children to make sense of their physical world and their community through opportunities to explore, observe and find out about people, places, technology and the environment.
EYFS FRAMEWORK (DfE, 2012) English in the Primary Curriculum
Group discussion and interaction
To join in as members of a group, pupils should be taught to:
-relate their contributions to what has gone on before
-take different views into account
-extend their ideas in the light of discussion
-give reasons for opinions and actions.
To talk effectively as members of a group, pupils should be taught to:
-make contributions relevant to the topic and take turns in discussion
-vary contributions to suit the activity and purpose
-qualify or justify what they think after listening to others' questions or accounts
-deal politely with opposing points of view and enable discussion to move on
-use different ways to help the group move forward, In English the Audience Response Systems can be used to encourage group discussions, this can be achieved either by including questions that have more than one answer so individuals are able to give their own opinions and ideas towards the answer they have given. Or by having one device between a group of children and together they have to talk and discuss between themselves to come to a logical conclusion. Maths sessions can be improved with the use of Audience Response Systems by creating Maths Games for example a Who
Wants To Be a Millionaire style game. Games help to engage the children as it is are a form of interactive learning and brings enjoyment to the maths lesson, plus games can be created that children are familiar with so they are more confident with the learning style used. The activities are stimulating for the children as they are quick-fire with no time to be distracted as
optimum concentration is required to win! Science lessons are usually very kinesthetic , so by using Audience Response Systems lessons can be enhanced. At the start of sessions predictions can be made of what the students will be doing and then recapping at the end to find out what actually happened. Discussions can be encourage with the results gained from the
class as the results can be displayed visually for them to see. Reference to the National Curriculum Maths in the Primary Curriculum - KS1
-Make decisions about which operations and problem-solving strategies to use
-Understand a general statement and investigate whether particular cases match it
subtraction); use vocabulary associated with multiplication and division
-Develop rapid recall of number facts: know addition and subtraction facts to 10 and use these to derive facts with totals to 20, know multiplication facts for the x2 and x10 multiplication tables and derive corresponding division facts, know doubles of numbers to 10 and halves of even numbers to 20
d. develop a range of mental methods for finding, from known facts, those that they cannot recall, including adding 10 to any single-digit number, then adding and subtracting a multiple of 10 to or from a two-digit number; develop a variety of methods for adding and subtracting, including making use of the facts that addition can be done in any order and that subtraction is the inverse of addition
e. carry out simple calculations of the form 40 + 30 = ?, 40 + ? = 100, 56 - ? = 10; record calculations in a number sentence, using the symbols +, -, x , ÷ and = correctly [for example, 7 + 2 = 9] . Science in the National Curriculum KS1
-Ask questions [for example, 'How?', 'Why?', 'What will happen if ... ?'] and decide how they might find answers to them.
Considering Evidence and Evaluating
-Compare what happened with what they expected would happen, and try to explain it, drawing on their knowledge and understanding
Knowledge, Skills and understanding
-Using a range of sources of information and data, including ICT-based sources. Reference to the National Curriculum Main Body of Learning in ICT ICT, although non-statutory, is a main focus in most primary schools. Ofsted (2009) researched and found that using ICT was contributing positively to the personal development and future economic well-being of pupils. Audience Response Systems create computing opportunities in the classroom for the children. An example of the use would be for children to create their own question/answer sessions based on a particular topic which they then 'talk about what information they need and how they can find and use it [for example, 'searching the internet or a CD-ROM, using printed material, asking people]' (DfE, 2006). They can then present these ideas to their peers. The National Curriculum also takes into consideration the presentation of information in various forms on the computer. Creating questionnaires and gathering information using the ARS can lead to the development of databases, bar charts, pie charts and the use spreadsheet software. 4.Questioning is a major area in teaching and therefore effective questioning is key for any task. With questions as the main focus, the type of question chosen plays a massive impact on the outcome of the task. Planning questions carefully and linking to the objectives of learning will help.
5.Planning an activity using an ARS device is crucial. Without careful planning on the activity and the questioning, the task will not work. Questions and an accompanying PowerPoint can be planned beforehand and therefore the task will run smoothly. Checking all the ARS are working and fully charged will also support smooth running. If a clicker does decide not to work, group work can be planned as an alternative.
6.Students may feel pressure to answer questions correctly if the results are being shown afterwards. Remind that the task is anonymous and it doesn’t matter if you are wrong. Audience Response Systems can be used in various ways, however they are mainly used for Assessment for Learning. Assessment for Learning EAL/SEN Pupils with English as an additional language and Special Educational Needs can benefits from the use of ICT. 'provide an opportunity for children to apply interactive communication and language skills' Larcher (2000). In relation to ARS's children who have difficulty expressing their knowledge through communication, have a chance to show their understanding with the use of the device, they give access to learning which increases motivation, fosters self-competition and confidence and improves self-esteem (Thomas, 1992.) The use of ICT allows inclusion for everybody whether they have special educational needs or not. Using this device will allow for any SEN and EAL children to be involved with the activity which will help not only develop ICT skills but other skills such as communication and confidence. Bordin (2010) states 'Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been highlighted as a tool for communication and inclusion for children with disabilities.' (p100) Bibliography Development "Assessment for learning is the process of identifying what the learner has or has not achieved in order to plan the next steps..." (Hargreaves, 2001)
Audience response systems can be used for assessment for learning. Briggs et al (2008) states the assessment for learning informs planning for the future. The device allows for a whole class assessment rather than an individual assessment which enables the teacher to assess the class as a whole. The teacher is then able to reflect on the whole classes learning and use it as a guidance as to what is needed to push the class onto the next steps in their learning. The use of ARS’s can also allow the teacher to reflect on their teaching and how much the whole class has learnt. When choosing a topic for our ICT project, we wanted to choose a concept that we hadn't previously come across. After conducting research online, we discovered research from the University of Colorado about the use of Audience Response Systems in higher education. ARS's have been extremely popular and effective in higher education classrooms, although almost no research has been done at lower schooling levels (Kay, Knaack, 2009). We decided to take this idea and explore it further in the context of primary education. Here is our reasoning:
- Studies, for example, Inside the Black Box (Black, William, 1998) show that low attainers and children with SEN improve through the use of formative assessment. ARS's can be used for formative assessments. This is described in greater detail later on.
- 'Audience response systems (ARS) are gaining popularity in multiple areas of education.' (Guse, Zobitz 2011) This fairly recent research inspired further learning about the device and concepts it involved.
- The ability to gain information from everyone in the classroom and not just from one individual. This is described in greater detail later on.
- The devices can be adapted to suit all year groups, including EYFS, because once explained the devices are easy and simple to use. Justification Hayley George, Ellie Daly and Aimee Watkins Reference to the National Curriculum In conclusion, We as group have learnt a variety of things whilst conducting our ICT project on ARS:
- Learned how ARS work within the classroom. We had not used or seen ARS's being used within a primary classroom and had to conduct research into new and different ways ARS's can be included within a primary classroom.
-New methods of assessing the children as a whole class as apposed to individually, and being able to include children with EAL and SEN. Gives a way of making planning for the whole class a lot simpler so that all needs of the class are met.
-New easy methods of making the most out of the plenary. Quick-recapping sessions and going over the learning objective as a whole class. We explored the idea of the plenary as a whole and then developed the research so we were then able to apply it to the use of ARSs. This also applies to new ICT and how to make links to the National Curriculum and the EYFS framework.
-Learned how to use new soft-wares, e.g Prezi, on-line presentation software, through trial and error and experimenting with the different tools available.
-New ways of referencing and researching, by using on-line e-books
and journals (accessed from sites like http://www.swetswise.com/)
-Building confidence within a team of new students, problem solving, such as when prezi did not work, making decisions and working as part of a team that we haven't worked with previously.
- Abrahamson L (2006) A brief history of networked classrooms: effects, cases, pedagogy, and implications. In: Banks DA (ed) Audience response systems in higher education. Information
Science Publishing, Hershey, pp 1–25
Biggs,M Woodfield, A Martin, C Swatton, P (2009). Assessment for learning and teaching. 2nd ed. Glasgow: Bell & Bain Ltd. p2
Black P and Wiliam D (1998) Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment, London: Kings College.
Guse, M and Zobitz, P (2011) Validation of the Audience Response System British Journal of Educational Technology Volume 42 no. 6 pp 985-991
Jane Brodin. (2010). Can ICT give children with disabilities equal opportunities in school?. Improving schools. 13 (1). p100
Kay, R. Knaack, L (2008) Exploring the Use of Audience Response Systems in Secondary School Science Classrooms
Lancaster grid for learning (2012). Assessment for learning. Available: http://www.lancsngfl.ac.uk/curriculum/assessment/index.php?category_id=102. Last accessed 17th December 2012.
McCabe M (2006) Live assessment by questioning in an interactive classroom. In: Banks DA (ed) Audience response systems in higher education. Information Science Publishing, Hershey,
Ofsted (2000) National Numeracy Strategy: an interim evaluation by HMI
Pelton LF, Pelton T (2006) Selected and constructed response systems in mathematics. In: Banks DA (ed) Audience response systems in higher education. Information Science Publishing, Hershey,
Williams, P. Jamali, H. Nicholas, D. (2006) Using ICT with people with special educational needs: what the literature tells us. Volume: 58, Issue: 4 (pp 3-8)
Vygotsky, L.S. (1978) Mind and Society. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press