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Transcript of Preposition
A word that shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence.
The combination of a preposition and a noun phrase is called a prepositional phrase. A word group (such as in front of or on top of) that functions like a simple, one-word preposition is called a complex preposition.
•I have a meeting ...................... 9am.
•The shop closes ........................... midnight.
•Jane went home ...............................lunchtime.
•In England, it often snows .................... December.
•Do you think we will go to Jupiter ............. the future?
•There should be a lot of progress ....................... the next century.
•Do you work ......................... Mondays?
•Her birthday is ...................... 20 November.
•Where will you be ................... New Year's Day? During: We use during (or in) to talk about a period of time within which an event or activity occurs. The activity may continue for the whole of period of time. I stayed at home during the summer The population of the city has actually fallen during the last decade We also use During (or in) when the event may happen at some time, or be repeated a number of times, in the period of time We went to France during the summer (or in the summer) He suffered a number of injuries during his career as a footballer ( or in his career) The President made the speech during a visit to Madrid We use during rather than in to mean 'at some time in the period of ' before nouns such as illness, holiday, meal,stay, treatment and visit We also use during rather than in with the phrase the whole (of), emphasising duration of an entire period No one was allowed to leave the ship during the whole of its time in port We can use throughout to emphasise that something happens over the whole period of time we had enough firewood to keep us warm throughout the winter (or ...warm during/ through the winter) Prepositions of Time at, in, on We use:
at for a precise time
in for Months, Years, Centuries and Long Periods
on for Days and Dates We can use over or during when we talk about something that goes on for a length of time within a period of time, either for some of that period, or for the whole of it Weather conditions have been improving over the past few years I fell, banged my head, and I can't remember anything about what happened over/ during the next hour However, if we talk about a short event that happens within a period of time, we prefer during She sneezed during the performance (= on a few occasions; not...over the performance) During a pause in the conversation, she left the room (not Over a pause...) Note that we can use throughout to mean that short events happen continuously within a period of time She sneezed throughout the performance We use UNTIL to say something continued or will continue to a particular point a time UNTIL, BY, UP TO There are many ways of saying when something that has continued for some time stops We use BY to say that something happened or will happen either before a particular time We have to be at home until 2.30 (we must not leave home before 2.30) We want to be at home by 2.30 ( We must arrive home either before or at 2.30) IN INFORMAL CONTEXTS WE CAN USE UP TO OR UP TILL INSTEAD OF UNTILL.We commonly use up to/till with now and with then I've just bought a computer. I've always used a typewriter up to now. The roadworks are likely to go on up to the end of May We can use until now to talk about a situation that will not continue beyond now
Supermarkets say that until now there has been little consumer interest in buying organic produce. (The situation has changed or is going to change) Notice, however , that we don't use until now for a situation that will or may continue into the future. Instead we can use so far , or, in formal contexts, to date It was certainly the best match of the football season so far When the contract is signed it will be the building company's biggest order to date He jumped over the fence into the garden Across, over We can use across or over to talk about a position on the other side of, or moving to the other side of a road, bridge, border, river, etc The truck came towards them across the bridge We use over rather than across when we talk about reaching the other side of something that is high, or higher than it is wide He jumped across the stream When we are talking about something we think as a flat surface, or an area like such as a country or sea, we prefer across rather than over The figures moved rapidly across the screen The program is broadcast across Australia We prefer all over rather than to all across to mean 'to or in many parts of an area'.
However, we commonly use across or right across for emphasis The disease has now spread all over the world ( or right across the world) ALONG , THROUGH When we talk about following a line of some kind ( a road, a river, etc) , we use along They walk along the footpath until they came to a small bridge. We use through to emphasise that we are talking about movement in a three dimensional space, with things all around, rather than a two dimensional space, a flat surface or area He pushed his way through the crowd of people to get to her. Through often suggests movement from one side or end of the space to the other Compare:
1. She walked through the forest to get to her grandmother's house
2. She spent a lot of her free time walking in the forest Above, Over; Below, Under; Beneath, Underneath; Throughout We can use either above or over when we say that one thing is at a higher level than another Above/ Over the door was a sign saying , Mind your head ' However, we prefer above when one thing is not directly over the other
1.They lived in a village in the mountains above the lake (not directly over)
2.The bird hovered just a few meters above/over the lake (directly over) We use over, not above , when something covers something else and touches it
She put a quilt over the bed And usually when we are talking about horizontal movement at a higher level than something :
I saw the helicopter fly out over the water, near the fishing boat Below is the opposite of above ; under is the opposite of over. The differences in the uses of below and under are similar to those between above and over It's hard to believe that there is a railway below/ under the building. ( at a lower level) Her head was below the level of the table, so nobody noticed her.(not directly under) She hid the presents under a blanket. (The blanket covers and touches the presents) Esther ran under the bridge. (horizontal movement at a lower level) We can use underneath as an alternative to under as a preposition of place. Beneath is sometimes used as a more formal alternative to under or bellow We can use throughout to emphasise that something is in every part of place The flower is found throughout the island The same laws apply throughout Europe PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE PREPOSITIONS OF MOVEMENT A preposition describes a relationship between two words in a sentence. Simple prepositions: Prepositions which consists only one word, e.g. in, on, at, with, against etc.., Compound prepositions ( prepositional phrases): Prepositions which consists of two or more words,e.g. instead of, in the middle of, by the side of etc..,