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GCSE PE THEORY

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Peter Mowforth

on 26 April 2016

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Transcript of GCSE PE THEORY

GCSE PE THEORY
2 SECTIONS IN THE THEORY
SECTION 1 - HEALTHY ACTIVE LIFESTYLES
Why do people get involved in physical activity? What are the benefits of taking part in sport and exercise on well-being? This section should help you understand the answers to these 2 questions which in turn will help you understand your own and others' motivations. Also you will learn how important such factors as exercise, training, fitness and diet are to success and the benefits they bring in everyday life.

"Mind Mapping" THE WHOLE syllabus
Topic 1.1.1 Healthy, active lifestyles and how they could benefit you.
SECTION 2 - YOUR HEALTHY ACTIVE BODY
This section looks at your body, starting with the different body types. you will then look at the body systems, such as the cardiovascular and respiratory system. The body systems work different during exercise ad can be enhanced from regular exercise. They all work together to help you cope when taking part. Lifestyle choices also affect them in different ways, resulting in benefits or potentially leading to problems.

Many people enjoy healthy active lifestyles; gaining many physical, mental and social benefits.

Name and describe the physical, mental and social benefits of taking part in physical activity giving examples from sport.
Topic 1.1.2 Influences on your healthy, active lifestyle.
Topic 1.1.3 Exercise and fitness as part of your healthy, active lifestyle.
Topic 1.1.4 Physical activity as part of your healthy, active lifestyle.
Topic 1.1.5 Your personal health and wellbeing.
Its not only about fitness and skills; there are other things that go into building a healthy, active lifestyle and athlete such as balancing diet, work and rest.
The building blocks to create a programme to get fit are the principles of training. The methods of training used to achieve your goal will differ to other athletes and how you assess whether your training has the desired effects will be specific to you.

Health, fitness and exercise are all related to each other.

Define each one:

What are the specific areas of fitness required to lead a healthy, active lifestyle and to improve performance?
There are different influences that make people want to take part in sport or push them away. What is done to keep them coming back and reaching the top?
Topic 1.1.1 Healthy, active lifestyles and how they could benefit you.
Name and describe the physical, mental and social benefits of taking part in physical activity.

Physical - fitness and health

Fitness - increased strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular fitness, flexibility

Health - stronger bones - reduced chance of developing osteoporosis due to weight bearing activities, reduced chance of heart disease due to lower cholesterol/blood pressure, reduced chance of stroke due to lower cholesterol/blood pressure, reduced chance of obesity due to burning calories whilst exercising
Topic 1.1.2 Influences on your healthy, active lifestyle.
There are different influences that make people want to take part in sport or push them away. What is done to keep them coming back and reaching the top?

Initiatives:
- Increase participation
Why: Increased Health (physical, mental, social) and Fitness
Leads to: Healthier nation, more entertainment from better performers

- Retain people in sport
Why: Maintain/improve fitness and health, take on other roles (like....), more likely to succeed
How: An effective network of clubs, a route to progress with good facilities, Opportunity for competition

- Create opportunities for talented performers
Why: For talented performers to achieve success
How: Progression needs to be possible from foundation to elite stages, Agencies will be involved in supporting the progression by providing:
- better facilities
- better coaching
- better education
Topic 1.1.3 Exercise and fitness as part of your healthy, active lifestyle.
Health - A state of complete mental, physical and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity

Fitness - The ability to meet the demands of the environment

Exercise - A form of physical activity done to maintain or improve health and / or physical fitness, it is not competitive sport

Performance - How well a task is completed


Topic 1.1.4 Physical activity as part of your healthy, active lifestyle.
What do you do before starting a training programme and why?

For all 11 components of fitness name a fitness test to assess someones fitness level in that component and describe how to carry it out.

Principles of Training and goal setting - match the definitions to the letters:
S P O R R I D
F I T T
S M A R T
Reversibility

Now add as much detail as you can to each principle - giving an example.
Topic 1.1.5 Your personal health and wellbeing.
Balanced diet - eating the right foods in the right amounts with a variety from each of the different food groups - What are the different food groups?

Exercise - a form of physical activity
Diet - the food we eat
Rest - time when we are not at work/exrcising
Work - our job - some are more physically demanding than others

Exercise requires energy
Rest and recovery requires good nutrition

When to eat - 2/4 hours before exercising - why?

What are macro nutrients and micro nutrients? Name them, describe their function and give an example of where they can be found.

Your skeleton does 3 main things; protect, support and movement.

Explain what is meant by support and protect.

It is also designed specifically to allow movement, meaning you can kick a ball or do a somersault.
Topic 1.2.5 A healthy, active lifestyle and your skeletal system.
Support - supports the body to enable us to hold a specific shape - standing up, sitting down or more complex shapes - give an example of a sport and a position you'd need support.

Protect - Different parts of the skeleton protect different parts of the body. Name what protects the brain, vertebral column and the heart and lungs. Give an example from sport when protection is needed.

(Page 153)
Topic 1.2.5 A healthy, active lifestyle and your skeletal system.
Topic 1.2.4 A healthy, active lifestyle and your muscular system.
Your body has a lot of different muscles - you need to know 11.

Name these 11 and draw where they go on a person.

You need to know what occurs with these muscles when you are exercising and the effects of exercising over long periods of time. You also need to know about hypertrophy and atrophy.
Topic 1.2.3 A healthy, active lifestyle and your respiratory system.
You breathe faster during exercise and after certain activities you are left gasping for breath well after it has finished - why?

How can your lifestyle affect your respiratory system?
How can lifestyle affect your cardiovascular system and what happens when you are exercising? What are the effects of exercising regularly?
Topic 1.2.2 A healthy, active lifestyle and your cardiovascular system.
Topic 1.2.4 A healthy, active lifestyle and your muscular system.
1 - deltoid, 2 - trapezius, 3 - latissimus dorsi, 4 - pectorals, 5 - abdominals, 6 - biceps, 7 - triceps, 8 - gluteals, 9 - quadriceps, 10 - hamstrings, 11 - gastrocnemius


Topic 1.2.3 A healthy, active lifestyle and your respiratory system.
You breathe faster during exercise and after certain activities you are left gasping for breath well after it has finished - why?
To remove the carbon dioxide from the body so muscles do not get lactic acid build up in them.

How can your lifestyle affect your respiratory system?
Smoking damages the lungs and effects gaseous exchange between the capillaries and lungs. Smoking makes the lungs, especially the alveoli, less stretchy and therefore less efficient so less O2 and CO2 can pass in and out.
How can lifestyle affect your cardiovascular system
- Positive - Rest periods - allows heart to recover and adapt - grow in size and thickness
- Negative - High cholesterol - due to high fats in diet (LDL) - cause a build up of plaque in arteries which can lead to heart problems including heart disease and heart attacks.
HDL (good cholesterol) LDL (bad cholesterol)
- Negative - Drug use - cigarettes - raise blood pressure, constricts arteries, heart beats faster - lowers HDL cholesterol and increase blood clots - heart attacks/strokes - alcohol - moderation increases HDL so in long term can help lower blood pressure - some people take prescription drugs to reduce blood pressure
- Negative - Lack of exercise - increases obesity, cardiovascular system doesn't get the benefits of exercise
- Negative - Stress - Negative stress - built up over time - increases blood pressure and elevates heart rate
Topic 1.2.2 A healthy, active lifestyle and your cardiovascular system.
Topic 1.2.1 Physical activity and your healthy mind and body.
The link between body composition and sport is huge. In addition, optimum weight, problems with weight, safety and drugs are all influential factors on how you perform within your sport.
Topic 1.2.1 Physical activity and your healthy mind and body.
Topic 1.2.5 A healthy, active lifestyle and your skeletal system.
Joints and movement
Joints are where 2 bones meet
Synovial Joints - cartilage at the end of the bone, synovial fluid between the cartilage.
Name the different types of joint and give an example and name the movement that can occur at the joint. Apply the movement to a sporting example.
Shoulder Movement
Ball and Socket
Ball and Socket
Shoulder
Hip
Elbow Movement
Hinge Joint
Elbow
Hinge Joint
Knee
Exercise increases bone density.
Ligaments (attach bone to bone) and tendons (attach bone to muscle) get stronger with exercise.

Young people (whose bones are still developing) should not do too much of some types of exercise (weight training and long distance running) as it causes bones to develop unevenly.

Osteoporosis - weak skeleton - bones break easily - weight bearing exercise helps stop or at least prevent onset of this.

Injuries and the skeletal system. Draw and complete table (p158-159)

Type Description Example
Topic 1.2.5 A healthy, active lifestyle and your skeletal system.
Injuries and the skeletal system.

What is the procedure for treating injuries?

R -
I -
C -
E -

Diet and the Skeletal System
Calcium rich, balanced - bones grow
strong - milk, cheese, yoghurt
Vit D - growth and maintenance of
healthy bones and calcium absorption

Smoking and alcohol have a toxic effect on bones
Topic 1.2.5 A healthy, active lifestyle and your skeletal system.
Topic 1.2.4 A healthy, active lifestyle and your muscular system.
Voluntary - bring about movement in the body
Involuntary - internal organs - work without being told to

How do muscles work - write an explanation.

What are antagonistic pairs?

What movements do each of the muscles do in the body?

Name the 2 types of muscle contraction.

What are the short and long term effects of exercise on the muscular system?
Topic 1.2.4 A healthy, active lifestyle and your muscular system.
How do muscles work - write an explanation.
Muscles are attached to bones by tendons. Muscles are made of many muscle fibres and when these contract the muscles pulls against the skeleton and movement takes place.

What are antagonistic pairs?
Muscles cannot push therefore once a muscles has contracted and moved a bone, another muscles must contract to pull the bone back in the opposite direction. Antagonistic pairs are what enables this to happen. One muscle contracts and pulls the bone and the other relaxes to allow this movement. as example would be the bicep and tricep. When the bicep contracts the tricep relaxes.
Topic 1.2.4 A healthy, active lifestyle and your muscular system.
What movements do each of the muscles do in the body?

Topic 1.2.4 A healthy, active lifestyle and your muscular system.
Name the 2 types of muscle contraction.
Isotonic - result in movement
Isometric - muscles contract but no visible movement

What are the short and long term effects of exercise on the muscular system?
Sort Term - increase in temperature, increase demand for O2, increase production of CO2, increase lactic acid production, muscle fatigue.

Long Term - Increase strength (helps activities requiring strength, endurance and power), increase in hypertrophy (helps activities requiring strength, endurance and power), increase myoglobin stores (improves immediate O2 supply to muscles)
Topic 1.2.4 A healthy, active lifestyle and your muscular system.
Muscles and injuries, rest, diet and drugs
Injuries - tears, pulls, strains - prevent = warm up/cool down
Injuries = muscles atrophy
Treatment = R I C E

Rest - Principle f training
Repair, rebuild, strengthen

Diet - energy stores need replacing in the muscles - carbohydrates - pasta, rice, bread - protein for muscles to repair - meat
Important to eat within 2 hours of stopping exercise

Drugs - protein pills - allowed but not essential - balanced diet better
Anabolic steroids - damage health, illegal in sports, used to build muscle size and strength quickly and helps recovery.
Topic 1.2.3 A healthy, active lifestyle and your respiratory system.
Key Terms:
Aerobically - working with O2

Anaerobically - working without O2

Oxygen debt - the extra amount of oxygen required AFTER anaerobic exercise, compared with the amount needed normally at rest

Total Lung Capacity - the total volume of air in your lungs after your biggest breath

Tidal Volume - during normal breathing the total amount breathed in and out in one cycle

Vital Capacity - the maximum you can forcibly breathe in and
out
Topic 1.2.3 A healthy, active lifestyle and your respiratory system.
Short term effects
Increased breathing rate (faster breathing)
Increased depth of breathing (more air taken in with each breath)
Oxygen debt

Benefits to this are
Increased removal of CO2
Increase in the amount of O2 taken into the lungs with each breath
Oxygen in 21% - Out 16% - used by working muscles
Carbon dioxide in 0.03% - out 4% - produced as by-product of energy release

Long term effects
Increased number of alveoli
Increased strength of intercostal muscles and diaphragm
Increased lung volume (due to increased tidal volume and vital capacity)

Benefits to this are
Respiratory system is stronger
Take in more air and extract O2 more efficiently
Provide more O2 to transport to working muscles
Topic 1.2.3 A healthy, active lifestyle and your respiratory system.
1) During a match a player is likely to build up an oxygen debt. What is oxygen debt?

2) If a player has build up oxygen debt will they have been working aerobically or anaerobically?

3) What by-product is associated with an oxygen debt?

Name the term described by the following statements:
4) The amount of air breathed in or out in one breath

5) The maximum amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after breathing in as much as possible

6) The amount of oxygen consumed during recovery above which would have ordinarily been consumed in the same time at rest
Topic 1.2.3 A healthy, active lifestyle and your respiratory system.
1) During a match a player is likely to build up an oxygen debt. What is oxygen debt? - A lack of oxygen

2) If a player has build up oxygen debt will they have been working aerobically or anaerobically? - anaerobically

3) What by-product is associated with an oxygen debt? - lactic acid

Name the term described by the following statements:
4) The amount of air breathed in or out in one breath - tidal volume

5) The maximum amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after breathing in as much as possible - vital capacity

6) The amount of oxygen consumed during recovery above which would have ordinarily been consumed in the same time at rest - oxygen debt
Topic 1.1.1 Healthy, active lifestyles and how they could benefit you.
Name and describe the physical, mental and social benefits of taking part in physical activity.

Mental and Physical

Competition
- Try to beat yourself
- Try to beat others

Aesthetic appreciation
- Recognising the quality or skill of movement in an activity

Physical challenge
- Pushes you OUTSIDE of comfort zone
- Rock climbing - Scary - Marathon - mentally and physically challenging
Topic 1.1.1 Healthy, active lifestyles and how they could benefit you.
Name and describe the physical, mental and social benefits of taking part in physical activity.

Mental

Feel Good Factor - Increases serotonin levels

Enjoyment / fun

Stress relief - relax, takes mind off problems

Stress-related illness - relieving stress reduces chance of suffering from depression

Increase self confidence / self esteem
Topic 1.1.1 Healthy, active lifestyles and how they could benefit you.
Name and describe the physical, mental and social benefits of taking part in physical activity.

Social (sometimes referred to as psychological)

Friendships and social mixing
- Meet new people
- Opportunities to meet friends
- Improve cooperation and teamwork
- Increased social activities therefore prevents antisocial behaviour
Topic 1.1.2 Influences on your healthy, active lifestyle.
Key Influences:
People - family, role models, peers
Image - media, fashion
Culture - age, disability, gender, race
Resources - availability, access, location, time
Health and wellbeing - health, illness
Socio-economic - cost, status

These are the key influences give an example of how each one could influence participation.

Different Opportunities are available in different sports - can you think of different roles or opportunities you could do to get involved in sport.

Draw the sports participation pyramid and explain each stage using examples.
Topic 1.1.2 Influences on your healthy, active lifestyle.
Initiatives to keep people involved:
1. Government
2. PESSCL
3. School Sports Partnerships
4. Sport England
5. Youth Sport Trust TOP Link
6. Active Kids Programme

What do you know about the above initiatives?
Topic 1.1.2 Influences on your healthy, active lifestyle.
Topic 1.1.2 Influences on your healthy, active lifestyle.
Initiatives to keep people involved:
1. Government
All pupils receive 2 hours high quality PE per week. Nation curriculum in schools dictates what should be taught.

2. PESSCL
Pe and school sport club links - government set up to increase uptake for sporting opportunities by 5-16 yr olds. Youth Sport Trust and Sport England manage 2 important areas in the Club Links and Step into Sport programmes. Provide opportunities for young people to take part in sport as performers, leaders, officials and volunteers.
Aims to strengthen links between schools and clubs.

3. School Sports Partnerships - Cluster of schools and a sports college
Develop opportunities in a range of sports and offer high quality coaching and competition.
Initiatives to keep people involved:
4. Sport England
Start - increase participation to improve health of nation, focus on priority groups
Stay - retain people in sport - effective network of clubs, facilities, coaches, volunteers and competitive opportunities
Succeed - create opportunities for talented performers to achieve success

5. Youth Sport Trust TOP Link
TOP aimed to encourage all age groups to participate focusing on 14-16 organising and managing events in primary schools - e.g. sports leaders

6. Active Kids Programme
Voucher programmes to buy equipment for schools etc.
Topic 1.1.3 Exercise and fitness as part of your healthy, active lifestyle.
Health Related Exercise
Muscular Strength
Flexibility
Muscular Endurance
Cardiovascular Fitness
Body Composition

Skill Related Fitness
Agility
Balance
Power
Reaction Time
Speed
Coordination

Define each one giving a sporting example.
Topic 1.1.3 Exercise and fitness as part of your healthy, active lifestyle.
Muscular Strength - the amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance
Flexibility - the range of movement possible at a joint
Muscular Endurance - the ability to use the voluntary muscles many times without getting tired
Cardiovascular Fitness - the ability to exercise the entire body for long periods of time
Body Composition - the percentage of body weight that is fat, muscle and bone
Agility - the ability to change the position of the body quickly and to control the movement of the whole body
Balance - the ability to retain the centre of mass above the base of support
Power - the ability to undertake strength performances quickly
Reaction Time - the time between the presentation of a stimulus and the onset of movement
Speed - the amount of time it takes to perform an action or cover a distance
Coordination - the ability to use two or more body parts together
Topic 1.1.4 Physical activity as part of your healthy, active lifestyle.
What do you do before starting a training programme and why?
PAR - Q

For all 11 components of fitness name a fitness test to assess someones fitness level in that component and describe how to carry it out.

Principles of Training and goal setting - match the definitions to the letters:
S P O R R I D (specificity, progressive overload, rest & recovery, individual differences)
F I T T (frequency, intensity, time, type)
S M A R T (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, time-bound)
Reversibility - stop training and you lose what you gained from the training sessions

Topic 1.1.4 Physical activity as part of your healthy, active lifestyle.
Methods of training:
Name the methods of training in the pictures and explain how to carry it out. Explain the benefits of that method of training and give a sport you would use that method for.
Topic 1.1.4 Physical activity as part of your healthy, active lifestyle.
Before we train we warm up and after training we cool down. Why? What are the 3 parts to the warm up? After a warm up what comes next?

Comparing types of training:
(Use pages 72 - 75)

Look at the 2 training sessions. Using the principles of training compare and contrast the 2 training sessions.
Topic 1.1.4 Physical activity as part of your healthy, active lifestyle.
Topic 1.1.4 Physical activity as part of your healthy, active lifestyle.
Topic 1.1.4 Physical activity as part of your healthy, active lifestyle.
Topic 1.1.4 Physical activity as part of your healthy, active lifestyle.
Topic 1.1.4 Physical activity as part of your healthy, active lifestyle.
Topic 1.1.4 Physical activity as part of your healthy, active lifestyle.
Topic 1.1.4 Physical activity as part of your healthy, active lifestyle.
Topic 1.1.4 Physical activity as part of your healthy, active lifestyle.
Topic 1.1.4 Physical activity as part of your healthy, active lifestyle.
Topic 1.1.4 Physical activity as part of your healthy, active lifestyle.
Describe each of the below:
Heart rate

Resting heart rate

Measuring heart rate

Working heart rate

Maximum heart rate

Target heart rate / target zone

Recovery rate
Topic 1.1.4 Physical activity as part of your healthy, active lifestyle.
Describe each of the below:
Heart rate - the number of times the heart beats per minute

Resting heart rate - heart rate before exercise

Measuring heart rate - how you find out your heart rate - carotid pulse, radial pulse

Working heart rate - heart rate measurement during or immediately after exercise

Maximum heart rate - 220 - your age

Target heart rate / target zone - area that you want to get your heart rate into when training

Recovery rate - how long it takes for the heart rate to return to its resting level
Topic 1.1.4 Physical activity as part of your healthy, active lifestyle.
Heart Rates:
Topic 1.1.5 Your personal health and wellbeing.
What are the different food groups? Carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals, water, fibre.

When to eat - 2/4 hours before exercising - why? Blood shunting - redirection of blood from the gut to the working muscles - causes stomach cramps. Vasoconstrition and vasodilation.

Macro
Carbohydrates - slow release energy - cereal, bread, pasta - largest quantity
Fats - Rich source of eneryg - meat, oils, dairy (butter), fried food - smallest quantity
Protein - growth and repair - meats, cheese, eggs, fish

Topic 1.1.5 Your personal health and wellbeing.
Micro
Minerals e.g. calcium - formation of teeth and bones - dairy, cereals
Minerals e.g. Iron - Transportation of O2 in blood - Green veg, liver
Vitamins - Ensures healthy body - Fat soluble A, D, E and K found in dairy and veg - Water soluable B and C found in fruit, whole grains and veg
Fibre - efficient digestive syste - whole grain bread and cereals, fruit and veg
Water - transportation of nutrients, regulates body temp, prevent dehydration - fluids and some provided in foods

Energy balance is when energy consumed (food eaten) = amount of energy expended (exercise done)


Topic 1.1.5 Your personal health and wellbeing.
If energy does not equal energy out it will result in the person being:

Underweight
Anorexic
Overfat
Overweight
Obese

Define the above

Optimum weight is a persons most favorable weight - it is affect by 5 factors - what are they?
Underweight - not weighing as much as expect for your height and sex

Anorexic - an eating disorder which is dangerous and caused by the individual eating very little - causes fatigue, fainting/dizziness, dehydration, muscular atrophy - potentially death

Overfat - having more fat than you should have - leads to high blood pressure and cholesterol

Overweight - weighing more than expected for your height and sex - can be overweight but not overfat

Obese - a person who is very overfat is defined as obese - leads to mobility issues, additional stress on bones and joints, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, depression due to low self esteem
Topic 1.2.1 Physical activity and your healthy mind and body.
Somatotypes - a way of classifying bod shape

Mesomorph - low levels of fat, builds muscle easily, solid build, wide shoulders, narrow hips - sprinting, weightlifting, boxing

Ectomorph - long, thin frame, narrow shoulders and hips, slim build, generally doesn't build muscle easily, generally does not store fat easily - long distance runner,high jumper

Endomorph - wide hips, narrow shoulders, tendancy to store fat - shot putt, sumo wrestling, prop in rugby
Topic 1.2.1 Physical activity and your healthy mind and body.
Optimum weight is a persons most favorable weight - it is affect by 5 factors - what are they?
Height - taller are generally heavier
Gender - males have proportionately more muscle and larger bones
Bone Structure - larger frame will be heavier than lighter frame
Muscle Girth - higher muscle girth are heavier
Genetics - influence body shape and weight

Somatotypes - a way of classifying bod shape - what are they?


Topic 1.2.1 Physical activity and your healthy mind and body.
Carbo-loading
Energy comes from food and running requires energy. Running a marathon is one of the hardest distances to run. In the lead up to a marathon a runner will prepare their body physically via training and by what they eat.
Carbo-loading is designed to maximise the athletes energy stores to enable them to compete at high intensity for the whole race.
The Sunday before the race they would do their last long training run - depleting their energy stores. They would then starve their bodies of carbohydrates and have a protein rich diet and low carbohydrate diet. They would decrease the frequency and distance in their training runs but this will keep their energy stores low.
Wednesday they would change the diet to high carbohydrates to fill ter energy stores completely in preparation for the marathon. Training would be shorter distances but at a faster pace. Friday and Saturday the athlete would eat mainly pasta. This causes the body to be fooled into retaining excessive amounts of carbohydrate beacuse it was starved of it ealier in the week. This causes greater energy stores for the race!
Topic 1.2.1 Physical activity and your healthy mind and body.
Drugs in Sport
There are 2 main types - recreational and performance enhancing.

All drugs have side effects - addictive - high blood pressure - insomnia.

drugs are used to enhance performance - some people take them due to temptation of rewards, competing at a higher level than they might of reached without them, earn enough money in a short period of time.

main performance enhancing drugs are: anabolic steroids, beta blockers, diuretics, narcotic analgesics, stimulants, peptide hormones including erythropoietin.
Topic 1.2.1 Physical activity and your healthy mind and body.
Anabolic Steroids
Reasons for taking them:
Train harder and longer - increasing power and strength
Increase protein synthesis to develop lean muscle mass
Increase chances of winning
Pressure from others
Speed up recovery time

Cheating
Health risks - liver damage, heart disease, infertility, skin problems, mood swings including increased aggression, premature baldness.

Who takes them - power athletes - weightlifters, sprinters
Topic 1.2.1 Physical activity and your healthy mind and body.
Diuretics
Increase rate of urination, increases fluid loss - not banned because they enhance performance but due to other benefits.
Achieve quick weight loss
Mask other performance enhancing substances the performer may have taken

Health risks - dehydration, nausea, headaches, heart/kidney failure

Who might use them - boxers, jockeys, performers trying to hide other drugs


Topic 1.2.1 Physical activity and your healthy mind and body.
Stimulants
Second most common drug used in sports, increases alertness, taken in large quantities is seen as performance enhancing, therefore banned.

Reasons for taking it:
Increase alertness so reaction time improves
Increase levels of aggression and competitiveness
Increase heart rate and therefore O2 delivery
Reduce tiredness

Health risks - insomnia, anxiety, aggression, heart rate irregularities, addiction, high blood pressure, increased heart rate

Taken by - athletes who need increased aggression where the performer is more likely to take physical knocks - rugby, boxing, ice hockey or when the performer needs to stay alert - cricket, baseball, long distance cycling
Topic 1.2.1 Physical activity and your healthy mind and body.
Recreational drugs
Most people use recreational drugs on a regular basis. caffeine, nicotine, ethanol (alcohol)

Socially Acceptable - drugs that are prescribed by a doctor or bought over a counter

Socially Unacceptable - illegal and unacceptable to most people - can be dangerous and some lead to death

Topic 1.2.1 Physical activity and your healthy mind and body.
Risks and Preventing Injuries in Sports

General Risks - associated with most physical activity. Sprain/pulled muscles

Activity Specific - associated with certain activities. Hit with a hockey stick is specific to hockey.

For hockey, football and cricket write down all the possible things that could happen in that activity then decide how you could (or they already do) reduce the risk.
Topic 1.2.1 Physical activity and your healthy mind and body.
Hockey
Heart attack
Shin splints
Pulled muscles
Fractured shin
Broken tooth
Shattered cheek bone

All these risks can be reduced through personal readiness.
Complete a PAR-Q - identify potential health risks and limit participation accordingly
Allow recovery time - prevent over use injury
Warm up - to prevent injury, e.g. pulled muscles
Use correct clothing / equipment - shin pads/gum shields/face masks - provide protection
Apply the rules correctly - don't lift ball if player with 5m of you, sticks below shoulder height
Topic 1.2.1 Physical activity and your healthy mind and body.

Other ways to reduce risk
1 - make sure the competition is balanced weight categories, mixed or single sex, age, handicap system
2 - check the equipment
3 - check the facilities

For rugby write an example of what you would need to do before a game to ensure it is safe.

Complete the below stating how the competition has been balanced:
U15 netball tournament
Womens football league
Lightweight boxing competition
Judo black belt championships
Topic 1.2.1 Physical activity and your healthy mind and body.
Beta Blockers
Reasons for taking them:
Calming effect
Reduce anxiety
Allow performer to remain in control
Increase chances of winning
Reduce muscular tremors (shaking)

Side effects:
Slowing heart rate - O2 delivery reduced drop in endurance performance
Lower blood pressure
Sleep disturbance causing tiredness

Precision athletes - archery, target shooting, gymnastics, diving
Topic 1.2.1 Physical activity and your healthy mind and body.
Narcotics/analgesics
Designed to relieve pain - dampen the effect of painful stimuli
Increase performers pain threshold
Sense of euphoria
Sense of invincible
Mask injuries so the performer can continue to compete

Health risks - nausea, sickness, anxiety/depression, kidney/liver damage, addiction, concentration loss, further damage to injury

Who might use them - sprinters, boxers, footballers, swimmers - any performer with an injury who wishes to carry on training.
Topic 1.2.1 Physical activity and your healthy mind and body.
Topic 1.2.1 Physical activity and your healthy mind and body.
Peptide hormones (including erythropoietin)
Used to produce same effects as steroids - increase muscle growth, assist in recovery from injury and heavy training sessions. Increase red blood cells to carry more O2 and get rid of waste products.

HGH - increases muscle mass and therefore strength
EPO - increases red blood cell production and therefore O2 delivery is increased

HGH - arthritis, heart failure, abnormal growth in feet and hands, diabetes
EPO - increased thickness of the blood, blood clots, strokes, deep vein thrombosis, increased risk of heart attack

HGH - athletes needing increased strength - weightlifting, sprinting
EPO - athletes where O2 delivery would be beneficial - rugby, distance running and distance cycling.
Negative effect on health
Alcohol - heart failure, increased blood pressure, increased weight, liver disease/cancer
Nicotine - strokes, bronchitis, heart disease/angina, blood clots, emphysema, lung cancer

Alcohol - leads to slower reaction times, makes the drinker less mobile due to excess weight, causes loss of coordination, causes loss of concentration - effects all sports
Nicotine - causes breathlessness, reduces oxygen carrying capacity - effects all sports
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/pe/performance/1_performance_drugsinsport_rev1.shtml
Topic 1.2.1 Physical activity and your healthy mind and body.
More information:
http://www.teachpe.com/drugs/
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/sportvideo/9810214/Lance-Armstrong-Oprah-interview-I-doped-during-all-seven-Tour-wins.html
http://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/0/athletics/23307913




What happens when you are exercising?
- Increased heart rate (resting normally between 60-80 bpm)

- Increased stroke volume

- Increased blood pressure

- Breathing faster and deeper

- Body temperature increases

- Sweating starts and body starts to become dehydrated

- Muscles begin to ache - lactic acid build up

Explain why each of these occur.
Topic 1.2.2 A healthy, active lifestyle and your cardiovascular system.
Topic 1.2.2 A healthy, active lifestyle and your cardiovascular system.
What are the effects of exercising regularly?
- Increase size and strength of the heart

- Increase in stroke volume

- Lower resting heart rate

- Increased maximum cardiac output

- Faster return to resting heart rate

- Increased capillarisation

- Increased number of red blood cells

- Lower blood pressure
Topic 1.2.2 A healthy, active lifestyle and your cardiovascular system.
Key Terms:
Heart rate - the number of times the heart beats per minute

Blood pressure - the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels

Cardiac Output - the amount of blood ejected from the heart in one minute

Stroke Volume - the volume of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle during one contraction.
Topic 1.2.2 A healthy, active lifestyle and your cardiovascular system.
The cardiovascular system is made up of 3 things:
- Heart - muscular pump that pushes blood around the body
- Blood - 2 main functions:
1) Supply the body with oxygen and nutrients
2) Remove waste products such as CO2
- Blood vessels - run throughout the body to allow the blood to travel everywhere
What happens when you are exercising?
- Increased heart rate - body needs more O2 therefore the heart works faster to provide the body with the O2 and nutrients and remove waste
- Increased stroke volume - Heart rate increased and therefore stroke volume increases as more blood flow
- Increased blood pressure - increased stroke volume therefore more blood flowing through the arteries and therefore pressure in the arteries increases
- Breathing faster and deeper - to enable more O2 to enter the lungs
- Body temperature increases - due to working muscles creating heat and increased blood flow round the body
- Sweating starts and body starts to become dehydrated- body temp rises and the body tries to cool itself down
- Muscles begin to ache - lactic acid build up - due to lack of O2 in the muscles
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