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Apocryphal Paradigm Shifts in Science

TOK Presentation

Komal Singh

on 20 March 2013

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Transcript of Apocryphal Paradigm Shifts in Science

Cigarettes: From the 1930s to the 1950s, cigarettes were physician tested and approved. Soldiers were given free cigarettes overseas during WWI and WWII. This form of smoking (as a science) hasn't been embraced by society and isn't effecting many people, so it can't be considered a paradigm shift or reliable. OR IS IT? To what extent can we trust science as it undergoes paradigm But how did we come to these conclusions? This is where the Ways of Knowing come in to play... s ? s t f i h Apocryphal Paradigm Shifts in Science We were taught Pluto was a planet all throughout elementary school. Pluto Cigarettes now... This is also seen in... But what do these paradigm shifts mean? Do they lead to truth? You know something is certain... But new information was found, leading to a paradigm shift... Following this logic we can admit that paradigm shifts are part of life, and lead to new knowledge. In conclusion... Paradigm shifts in science are reliable... even though they have a huge impact in our lives. Paradigm shifts push to add certainty in the Natural Sciences Therefore reliance in science should ultimately not change even though scientific knowledge will. But why is this so darn important to us?
The End Presentation by
Komal Singh & Meghan Carter Perception Language Reason Emotion Planet Mnemonic My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nine Pizzas Magic School Bus In 2006, Pluto was demoted to a Dwarf Planet, a new term created for Pluto and other discoveries. But throughout its "planethood", Pluto was discussed for its size and icy characteristics. Pluto's orbit was also eccentric as it crossed Neptune's orbit. New technology developed in 1990s that led to new discoveries such as Ceres and Xena. After the International Astronomical Union officially created a definition for a planet, it was seen that Pluto and other discoveries did not meet criteria, just as expected. PLUTO EXAMPLE: Because of the ambiguity of the definition of PLANET, this is what caused Pluto to be a planet in the first place. the word PLANET was thrown around often but no one exactly knew the term... DO YOU? After the meeting in 2006, a definition was created... A planet MUST
orbit a star/sun
it must be big enough for gravity to make it into a round shape
have a clear orbital field I SEE PLUTO! Clyde thought that Pluto would be bigger when he discovered it. The whole astronomy community believed also. But due to lack of technology, perception had deceived not only Clyde, but also Pluto. But as new technology developed in the 1990s, Pluto's actual size was found, as well as other similar discoveries. Bye Pluto. Those who are affected by the shift are shocked. We, as students, grew up knowing that Pluto was a planet. Having SCIENCE contradict itself leads most people to have less trust in new findings. Being part of a paradigm shift helps us realize that knowledge is always changing and growing. Dwarf Pluto After finding others like Pluto, such as Ceres and Xena, it was voted to label them dwarf planets. Having a revised definition of "planet" and adding a new term "dwarf planet" has effected astronomy to group new discoveries in a specific fashion. Therefore Pluto will never again be the last of nine, but the first of many. With little knowledge of medicine, doctors perceived cigarettes to be healthy for humans because long term affects weren't developed. After scientific evidence, they are perceived differently. Once a doctor says they are bad, then we listen. Community perception of cigarettes convinced many people to smoke. If soldiers were chain smokers, then citizens could be as well. Physically, cigarettes weren't harming people in the 20th century. (see to believe) As family members/friends were dying of lung cancer, people were becoming saddened and against smoking. The sensational pleasure of cigarette smoking for people made it a reason to continue to smoke. People became addicted and emotionally attached to cigarettes. We grew up with the notion that smoking was bad so we have a negative feeling towards cigarettes. Since the rate of lung cancer was increasing a short time after cigarettes were introduced, a connection can be made between the two. Doctors reasoned that if the cancer was caused by the amount of tar present in the cigarettes, then less must be used. Paradigm Shift of Pluto The Surgeon General of the U.S. (also chief doctor of the country) wrote a report about the dangers of cigarette smoking. Counter Argument Answer to Counter Argument Pluto cannot be demoted from a planet and therefore cause a paradigm shift because of the way the astrologists handled the situation. Pluto still would not fit the criteria of the "old" planet definition when it was found. Because of the ambiguity of the definition and of Pluto itself, it was labeled a planet. Furthermore, Science became reliable with better technology development; hence, the new discover of Ceres and Xena. 1900s- doctor approved, positive connotation, accepted 2000s- negative connotation, not recommended, kills The wording of labels used (law passed) had tried to confuse people into thinking smoking was a good thing. Very brief and doesn't include details. CIGARETTE EXAMPLE: TASTING TOBACCO Craving Cigarettes. Electronic Cigarettes As a result, the electronic cigarette was introduced with no tar in it at all. In 2008, electronic cigarettes were created. They don't contain tobacco, just nicotine. It stimulates the sensation of smoking without taking in the over 4,000 chemicals. Counter Argument Furthermore... Answer to Counter ARGUMENT:Science has become more reliable with the paradigm shift of electronic cigarettes because of new information of the effects of tobacco. The electronic cigarette has only been out for 6 years so all of its benefits are unknown. It hasn't been completely embraced because it's too time consuming and inconvenient for some. Science has proven to create the same effect between the two cigarettes while taking out the lung cancer cause. Britt, Robert Roy. "Pluto Demoted: No Longer a Planet in Highly Controversial Definition." Space.com. Space.com, 24 Aug. 2006. Web. 08 Mar. 2013. <http://www.space.com/2791-pluto-demoted-longer-planet-highly-controversial-definition.html>. Boyle, Alan. The Case for Pluto: How a Little Planet Made a Big Difference. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2010. p. 141 Boyle, Alan. The Case for Pluto: How a Little Planet Made a Big Difference. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2010. p. 141 Rosenberg, Jennifer. "Pluto Discovered." 20th Century History. DeVry University, n.d. Web. 7 Mar. 2013. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/1930s/qt/Pluto.htm>. Rosenberg, Jennifer. "Pluto Discovered." 20th Century History. DeVry University, n.d. Web. 7 Mar. 2013. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/1930s/qt/Pluto.htm>. Rosenberg, Jennifer. "Pluto Discovered." 20th Century History. DeVry University, n.d. Web. 7 Mar. 2013. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/1930s/qt/Pluto.htm>. "Hematology/Oncology." Cigarettes Were Once 'physician' Tested, Approved. Healio, n.d. Web. 7 Mar. 2013. <http://www.healio.com/hematology-oncology/news/print/hematology-oncology/{241d62a7-fe6e-4c5b-9fed-a33cc6e4bd7c}/cigarettes-were-once-physician-tested-approved>. Rosenberg, Jennifer. "Cigarettes and World War II." 20th Century History. DeVry University, n.d. Web. 9 Mar. 2013. <http://history1900s.about.com/b/2009/08/04/cigarettes-and-world-war-ii.htm>. "Highlights: Warning Labels." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. N.p., 09 Aug. 2000. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. <http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/2000/highlights/labels/index.htm> Debi Austin Smoking Video How can we know Pluto is not a planet? KEY TERMS NATURAL SCIENCE SCIENTISTS PARADIGM SHIFT study of the mechanics of the natural world can consist of Physics, Astrology, Biology and many more interpret the mechanics into a form understandable to society. can range from Astrologists to doctors pool of justified knowledge based on other theories and laws new results can be dismissed or lead to a SHIFT... which creates a new development of knowledge a method of communicating ideas, knowledge and expression. limitation: too many interpretations Knower can interpret experience in a unique way. includes seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, and tasting. Knower's individual mental process Can give the knower some kind of truth Using given premises, the knower can come to conclusions Justify own action identify bias ARGUMENT: Pluto's demotion caused a paradigm shift as old information was forced to be revised... Cigarettes defined differently in each century... Although during the shift, science seemed untrustworthy, it will eventually lead to a better understanding. The word "planet" was ambiguous in its definition.
wanderer in the sky and moved against star's fixed background
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