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The Hebrew Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls

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by

Ian Werrett

on 14 September 2016

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Transcript of The Hebrew Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls

586 BCE
70 CE
1600 CE
1500 BCE
200 CE
A Brief History of The Hebrew Bible
Oral Tradition
Septuagint - LXX
Dead Sea Scrolls
Canonization of Hebrew Bible
Technological Innovations
Vulgate
Medieval Hebrew Bible Codices
No written language
Repetition, Rhyme, Naming
Didactic
Actual historical accounts
Ethical and moral lessons
Legends and Myths - Etiologies
Greek

Hebrew

Paleo-Hebrew

The scrolls date from 250 B.C.E. – 68 C.E. and are written in three languages: Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek

Four alphabets: Hebrew, paleo-Hebrew (an early version of the Hebrew alphabet), Greek, and a cryptographic alphabet comprised of various letters and symbols

Genesis 20
Exodus 18
Leviticus 17
Numbers 7
Deuteronomy 29
Joshua 2
Judge 3
1-2 Samuel 4
1-2 Kings 3
Isaiah 21
Jeremiah 6
Ezekiel 6
Minor Prophets 8
Psalms 35
Proverbs 2
Job 4
Song of Solomon 4
Ruth 4
Lamentations 4
Ecclesiastes 2
Esther 0
Daniel 8
Ezra-Nehemiah 1
1-2 Chronicles 1
Number of Manuscripts of Biblical Books
Found Among the Dead Sea Scrolls

The Great Isaiah Scroll

Yahwist Source - 10th-9th c. BCE
Elohist Source - 9th-8th c. BCE
Deuteronomic Source - 7th c. BCE
Priestly Source - 6th - 5th c. BCE
The Documentary Source Hypothesis
"JEPD"
1000 BCE
100 CE
Parts of Genesis
Some Psalms
Song of the Sea
Deborah's Song
Hebrew Bible
Canonized

500 BCE
750 BCE
250 BCE
Deuteronomy
Torah Completed
Book of the 12
Ruth
Joshua
Judges
Samuel
Kings
Isaiah 40-66
Jeremiah
Isaiah 1-39
Song of Songs
Lamentations
Esther
Ezra-Nehemiah
Chronicles
Jonah
Daniel
Gen. 1:1 Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἐποίησεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν. 2 ἡ δὲ γῆ ἦν ἀόρατος καὶ ἀκατασκεύαστος, καὶ σκότος ἐπάνω τῆς ἀβύσσου, καὶ πνεῦμα θεοῦ ἐπεφέρετο ἐπάνω τοῦ ὕδατος. 3 καὶ εἶπεν ὁ θεός Γενηθήτω φῶς. καὶ ἐγένετο φῶς. 4 καὶ εἶδεν ὁ θεὸς τὸ φῶς ὅτι καλόν. καὶ διεχώρισεν ὁ θεὸς ἀνὰ μέσον τοῦ φωτὸς καὶ ἀνὰ μέσον τοῦ σκότους. 5 καὶ ἐκάλεσεν ὁ θεὸς τὸ φῶς ἡμέραν καὶ τὸ σκότος ἐκάλεσεν νύκτα. καὶ ἐγένετο ἑσπέρα καὶ ἐγένετο πρωί, ἡμέρα μία.
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